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The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market

The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market

Author: Christian Hsieh, CEO of Tokenomy
This paper examines some explanations for the continual global market demand for the U.S. dollar, the rise of stablecoins, and the utility and opportunities that crypto dollars can offer to both the cryptocurrency and traditional markets.
The U.S. dollar, dominant in world trade since the establishment of the 1944 Bretton Woods System, is unequivocally the world’s most demanded reserve currency. Today, more than 61% of foreign bank reserves and nearly 40% of the entire world’s debt is denominated in U.S. dollars1.
However, there is a massive supply and demand imbalance in the U.S. dollar market. On the supply side, central banks throughout the world have implemented more than a decade-long accommodative monetary policy since the 2008 global financial crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the need for central banks to provide necessary liquidity and keep staggering economies moving. While the Federal Reserve leads the effort of “money printing” and stimulus programs, the current money supply still cannot meet the constant high demand for the U.S. dollar2. Let us review some of the reasons for this constant dollar demand from a few economic fundamentals.

Demand for U.S. Dollars

Firstly, most of the world’s trade is denominated in U.S. dollars. Chief Economist of the IMF, Gita Gopinath, has compiled data reflecting that the U.S. dollar’s share of invoicing was 4.7 times larger than America’s share of the value of imports, and 3.1 times its share of world exports3. The U.S. dollar is the dominant “invoicing currency” in most developing countries4.

https://preview.redd.it/d4xalwdyz8p51.png?width=535&format=png&auto=webp&s=9f0556c6aa6b29016c9b135f3279e8337dfee2a6

https://preview.redd.it/wucg40kzz8p51.png?width=653&format=png&auto=webp&s=71257fec29b43e0fc0df1bf04363717e3b52478f
This U.S. dollar preference also directly impacts the world’s debt. According to the Bank of International Settlements, there is over $67 trillion in U.S. dollar denominated debt globally, and borrowing outside of the U.S. accounted for $12.5 trillion in Q1 20205. There is an immense demand for U.S. dollars every year just to service these dollar debts. The annual U.S. dollar buying demand is easily over $1 trillion assuming the borrowing cost is at 1.5% (1 year LIBOR + 1%) per year, a conservative estimate.

https://preview.redd.it/6956j6f109p51.png?width=487&format=png&auto=webp&s=ccea257a4e9524c11df25737cac961308b542b69
Secondly, since the U.S. has a much stronger economy compared to its global peers, a higher return on investments draws U.S. dollar demand from everywhere in the world, to invest in companies both in the public and private markets. The U.S. hosts the largest stock markets in the world with more than $33 trillion in public market capitalization (combined both NYSE and NASDAQ)6. For the private market, North America’s total share is well over 60% of the $6.5 trillion global assets under management across private equity, real assets, and private debt investments7. The demand for higher quality investments extends to the fixed income market as well. As countries like Japan and Switzerland currently have negative-yielding interest rates8, fixed income investors’ quest for yield in the developed economies leads them back to the U.S. debt market. As of July 2020, there are $15 trillion worth of negative-yielding debt securities globally (see chart). In comparison, the positive, low-yielding U.S. debt remains a sound fixed income strategy for conservative investors in uncertain market conditions.

Source: Bloomberg
Last, but not least, there are many developing economies experiencing failing monetary policies, where hyperinflation has become a real national disaster. A classic example is Venezuela, where the currency Bolivar became practically worthless as the inflation rate skyrocketed to 10,000,000% in 20199. The recent Beirut port explosion in Lebanon caused a sudden economic meltdown and compounded its already troubled financial market, where inflation has soared to over 112% year on year10. For citizens living in unstable regions such as these, the only reliable store of value is the U.S. dollar. According to the Chainalysis 2020 Geography of Cryptocurrency Report, Venezuela has become one of the most active cryptocurrency trading countries11. The demand for cryptocurrency surges as a flight to safety mentality drives Venezuelans to acquire U.S. dollars to preserve savings that they might otherwise lose. The growth for cryptocurrency activities in those regions is fueled by these desperate citizens using cryptocurrencies as rails to access the U.S. dollar, on top of acquiring actual Bitcoin or other underlying crypto assets.

The Rise of Crypto Dollars

Due to the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, USD stablecoin, a crypto-powered blockchain token that pegs its value to the U.S. dollar, was introduced to provide stable dollar exposure in the crypto trading sphere. Tether is the first of its kind. Issued in 2014 on the bitcoin blockchain (Omni layer protocol), under the token symbol USDT, it attempts to provide crypto traders with a stable settlement currency while they trade in and out of various crypto assets. The reason behind the stablecoin creation was to address the inefficient and burdensome aspects of having to move fiat U.S. dollars between the legacy banking system and crypto exchanges. Because one USDT is theoretically backed by one U.S. dollar, traders can use USDT to trade and settle to fiat dollars. It was not until 2017 that the majority of traders seemed to realize Tether’s intended utility and started using it widely. As of April 2019, USDT trading volume started exceeding the trading volume of bitcoina12, and it now dominates the crypto trading sphere with over $50 billion average daily trading volume13.

https://preview.redd.it/3vq7v1jg09p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f11b5f5245a8c335ccc60432873e9bad2eb1e1
An interesting aspect of USDT is that although the claimed 1:1 backing with U.S. dollar collateral is in question, and the Tether company is in reality running fractional reserves through a loose offshore corporate structure, Tether’s trading volume and adoption continues to grow rapidly14. Perhaps in comparison to fiat U.S. dollars, which is not really backed by anything, Tether still has cash equivalents in reserves and crypto traders favor its liquidity and convenience over its lack of legitimacy. For those who are concerned about Tether’s solvency, they can now purchase credit default swaps for downside protection15. On the other hand, USDC, the more compliant contender, takes a distant second spot with total coin circulation of $1.8 billion, versus USDT at $14.5 billion (at the time of publication). It is still too early to tell who is the ultimate leader in the stablecoin arena, as more and more stablecoins are launching to offer various functions and supporting mechanisms. There are three main categories of stablecoin: fiat-backed, crypto-collateralized, and non-collateralized algorithm based stablecoins. Most of these are still at an experimental phase, and readers can learn more about them here. With the continuous innovation of stablecoin development, the utility stablecoins provide in the overall crypto market will become more apparent.

Institutional Developments

In addition to trade settlement, stablecoins can be applied in many other areas. Cross-border payments and remittances is an inefficient market that desperately needs innovation. In 2020, the average cost of sending money across the world is around 7%16, and it takes days to settle. The World Bank aims to reduce remittance fees to 3% by 2030. With the implementation of blockchain technology, this cost could be further reduced close to zero.
J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., has created an Interbank Information Network (IIN) with 416 global Institutions to transform the speed of payment flows through its own JPM Coin, another type of crypto dollar17. Although people argue that JPM Coin is not considered a cryptocurrency as it cannot trade openly on a public blockchain, it is by far the largest scale experiment with all the institutional participants trading within the “permissioned” blockchain. It might be more accurate to refer to it as the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) instead of “blockchain” in this context. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that as J.P. Morgan currently moves $6 trillion U.S. dollars per day18, the scale of this experiment would create a considerable impact in the international payment and remittance market if it were successful. Potentially the day will come when regulated crypto exchanges become participants of IIN, and the link between public and private crypto assets can be instantly connected, unlocking greater possibilities in blockchain applications.
Many central banks are also in talks about developing their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Although this idea was not new, the discussion was brought to the forefront due to Facebook’s aggressive Libra project announcement in June 2019 and the public attention that followed. As of July 2020, at least 36 central banks have published some sort of CBDC framework. While each nation has a slightly different motivation behind its currency digitization initiative, ranging from payment safety, transaction efficiency, easy monetary implementation, or financial inclusion, these central banks are committed to deploying a new digital payment infrastructure. When it comes to the technical architectures, research from BIS indicates that most of the current proofs-of-concept tend to be based upon distributed ledger technology (permissioned blockchain)19.

https://preview.redd.it/lgb1f2rw19p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=040bb0deed0499df6bf08a072fd7c4a442a826a0
These institutional experiments are laying an essential foundation for an improved global payment infrastructure, where instant and frictionless cross-border settlements can take place with minimal costs. Of course, the interoperability of private DLT tokens and public blockchain stablecoins has yet to be explored, but the innovation with both public and private blockchain efforts could eventually merge. This was highlighted recently by the Governor of the Bank of England who stated that “stablecoins and CBDC could sit alongside each other20”. One thing for certain is that crypto dollars (or other fiat-linked digital currencies) are going to play a significant role in our future economy.

Future Opportunities

There is never a dull moment in the crypto sector. The industry narratives constantly shift as innovation continues to evolve. Twelve years since its inception, Bitcoin has evolved from an abstract subject to a familiar concept. Its role as a secured, scarce, decentralized digital store of value has continued to gain acceptance, and it is well on its way to becoming an investable asset class as a portfolio hedge against asset price inflation and fiat currency depreciation. Stablecoins have proven to be useful as proxy dollars in the crypto world, similar to how dollars are essential in the traditional world. It is only a matter of time before stablecoins or private digital tokens dominate the cross-border payments and global remittances industry.
There are no shortages of hypes and experiments that draw new participants into the crypto space, such as smart contracts, new blockchains, ICOs, tokenization of things, or the most recent trends on DeFi tokens. These projects highlight the possibilities for a much more robust digital future, but the market also needs time to test and adopt. A reliable digital payment infrastructure must be built first in order to allow these experiments to flourish.
In this paper we examined the historical background and economic reasons for the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the world, and the probable conclusion is that the demand for U.S. dollars will likely continue, especially in the middle of a global pandemic, accompanied by a worldwide economic slowdown. The current monetary system is far from perfect, but there are no better alternatives for replacement at least in the near term. Incremental improvements are being made in both the public and private sectors, and stablecoins have a definite role to play in both the traditional and the new crypto world.
Thank you.

Reference:
[1] How the US dollar became the world’s reserve currency, Investopedia
[2] The dollar is in high demand, prone to dangerous appreciation, The Economist
[3] Dollar dominance in trade and finance, Gita Gopinath
[4] Global trades dependence on dollars, The Economist & IMF working papers
[5] Total credit to non-bank borrowers by currency of denomination, BIS
[6] Biggest stock exchanges in the world, Business Insider
[7] McKinsey Global Private Market Review 2020, McKinsey & Company
[8] Central banks current interest rates, Global Rates
[9] Venezuela hyperinflation hits 10 million percent, CNBC
[10] Lebanon inflation crisis, Reuters
[11] Venezuela cryptocurrency market, Chainalysis
[12] The most used cryptocurrency isn’t Bitcoin, Bloomberg
[13] Trading volume of all crypto assets, coinmarketcap.com
[14] Tether US dollar peg is no longer credible, Forbes
[15] New crypto derivatives let you bet on (or against) Tether’s solvency, Coindesk
[16] Remittance Price Worldwide, The World Bank
[17] Interbank Information Network, J.P. Morgan
[18] Jamie Dimon interview, CBS News
[19] Rise of the central bank digital currency, BIS
[20] Speech by Andrew Bailey, 3 September 2020, Bank of England
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Why does WaykiChain (WICC) soar after the start of 2020? With the advent of the bull market, how does WaykiChain perfect their Defi ecosystem and occupy the market?

As a world’s leading blockchain company focused on blockchain’s underlying technology and related ecosystem technology, WaykiChain owns an industry-leading public chain. Relying on the inherent technical advantages of blockchain and its superior R&D strength, WaykiChain is empowered with high-performance transaction processing capabilities (TPS3300), efficient mechanism of consensus (DPoS + pBFT), powerful smart contract, as well as the blockchain ecological decentralized control ability, WaykiChain can provide various major industries and key areas of vertical industry with infrastructure services and industry solutions.
At present, the bottom layer of the WaykiChain public chain has been continuously upgraded and optimized and has achieved significant success. WaykiChain stablecoin WUSD, which is developed on the bottom of the public chain, is one of the important infrastructures of blockchain finance promoted by WaykiChain. It is also continuously improving the potential of decentralized business development.
At 20:00 on February 14th, at the invitation of the “Bull Market Sharing Class”, Gordon Gao, the Co-Founder, and CEO of WaykiChain, made sharing of the theme “ Why does WaykiChain (WICC) soar after the start of 2020? With the advent of the bull market, how does WaykiChain perfect their Defi ecosystem and occupy the market?”
Gordon Gao Background: Gordon Gao, WaykiChain Co-Founder & CEO, an Alumni of Columbia University in New York, former Chief Data Scientist of Fishbowl in Wall Street, ex-Senior Data Analyst of Alibaba Group, a senior member of Mensa International Club, currently serves as WaykiChain CEO. He is responsible for offering support to WaykiChain commercial model designing and strategy planning, building up a digitalized monitor system for products and operation and promoting WaykiChain overseas market with his international background.
The Following is the content of sharing from Gordon Gao:
1.WaykiChain is a third-generation blockchain commercial public chain that aims to build a world-leading public chain brand. How does the performance of WaykiChain compare to other public chains on the market?
Gordon Gao: In terms of performance, WaykiChain’s TPS ranks first with a measured average of 3300 in the world. Besides, our ecological construction in the DApp field and Defi is also gradually perfect. Last year, we introduced more than 20 DApps. Since WaykiChain has launched the Defi platform, it has collateralized over 24 million WICC and issued over USD 1.4 million in WUSD.
2. Recently, WaykiChain(WICC) is well received by Korean investors, and its trading volume has exceeded 70 billion WON. How does WaykiChain achieve such outstanding results?
Gordon Gao: When WaykiChain(WICC) was listed on Bithumb, WICC’s premium was three times the domestic price. Recent market conditions are very good. The maximum price in South Korea is up to 10 times the domestic price.
Our investment in the Korean market has always been very large. As early as 2018 May, WaykiChain Global Conference which was attracted thousands of persons to participate was successfully held in Seoul. After that, we did a lot of publicity around the Korean market, such as the content promotion and SEO promotion of their NAVER search engine. Last year, we also held WaykiChain(WICC) X Huobi Korea Hackathon and offline meetup in South Korea. I have also been invited three times to give speeches and conducting exhibitions at Korean blockchain conferences. And our CTO Richard Chen was invited to interview with the Korean media, which was broadcast by Korean KBS TV station. South Korean users are very impressed with WaykiChain. When WaykiChain held the Hackathon in South Korea last year, a Korean investor came over and told us that he also came to our conference in 2018 and also received gold bars. He told us he was very happy to see our development so that he came to support us this time. When we have this kind of market enthusiasm, it is not unusual for prices to be reflected in the exchange.
3. According to media reports, WaykiChain has a strong technical team and has made a lot of progress in technology development. It has planned a four-public chain version iteration plan. What innovations and breakthroughs has WaykiChain achieved in technology?
Gordon Gao: The current version is WaykiChain public chain v2.0 version (Teng version) that we updated in October last year. We added the decentralized exchange and developed a CDP system at the bottom of the public chain for pledging WICC to get stablecoin WUSD. We developed a 3-token economy model (WICC, WUSD, WGRT) and increased the speed of block generation from 10 seconds per block to 3 seconds per block, which greatly improving user experience. This version lays the foundation for us to achieve decentralized financial functions, and directly implements the three most important functions of Defi at the moment: stablecoin, lending, and DEX.
We are developing the public chain v3.0 version (Hu version) now. In the public chain v3.0 version, we will further improve the performance and scalability of the current decentralized exchange, allowing anyone to publish their own DEX on the chain. Meanwhile, we will introduce WASM to greatly improve the performance and developer-friendly of the virtual machine.
At the same time, in the next public chain version, we will soon launch the WASM virtual machine, which greatly improves the performance of the virtual machine and makes it developer-friendly. Porting virtual machine is a project with high technical difficulty. We learned that several projects ranked among the top 30 in market value are also developing WASM virtual machines. It took us several months to complete the porting of WASM, which fully demonstrates our technical strength. In addition, in the next version, we will provide a decentralized cross-chain solution so that more digital assets can operate in the WaykiChain Defi eco-system.
4. We all know that WaykiChain has conducted in-depth reciprocal visits with the Montenegro government and exchanged views on blockchain technology reform in the field of Montenegro International Trade and Finance. What new knowledge and experiences have you gained through international cooperation? How do these experiences inspire you to give WaykiChain more business value and promote the implementation of decentralized financial applications?
Gordon Gao: Firstly, the government thinks differently from ours. For example, we only consider whether a business model can improve efficiency and reduce costs, but the government will also consider how to coordinate all stakeholders and make a balance. We discussed the issuance of stablecoins with them. If stablecoins are controlled by the central bank and all are on the chain, then the commercial banks below the central bank will not be able to adopt the original method. If addition, currency is issued through leverage, this is a weakening of existing stakeholders and it is difficult to continue. So, both of us are still exploring better solutions, and strive to not only improve efficiency through the blockchain but also meet all existing stakeholders.
Moreover, there is also a shortage of technical talents and human resources in some European countries and regions. They welcome Chinese blockchain teams like us to export technology and solutions to them. This is a very good opportunity for WaykiChain and other Chinese blockchain teams.
Thirdly, the cheap money policy of the European Central Bank can cause huge interest rate differences between European and Asian currencies. This contains huge market space and business opportunities, and the Defi system aims at this.
5. WaykiChain will complete the cross-chain process of BTC and ETH in the first half of 2020, and the mortgage lending system through stablecoin will be launched simultaneously. It is expected that there will be a new round of explosive growth around WUSD’s Pre-IPO business and loans. What is WUSD and what are its uses?
Gordon Gao: WaykiChain WUSD, the first stablecoin developed on Core Layer of the public chain, is issued through over-collateralization with value anchored to USD.
WUSD is the cornerstone of the WaykiChain Defi system. WUSD can be cashed in USDT or fiat currency. In other words, users can pledge their WICC to borrow cash. This principle is the same as a loan from a bank. WUSD can buy WICC or WGRT (governance coin) in WaykiChain DEX. This means that giving leverage to those who hold WaykiChain coins. WUSD can also be used in WaykiChain ecological applications. For example, Huatong Securities provides brokerage services on HK and US stocks to global customers with its unique WUSD-based payment solution which means that opening up the digital currency and traditional financial channels. Also, recently, we plan to launch a new application just like bank demand loans. Users can buy WUSD as wealth management. Of course, there will be derivatives based on WUSD pricing in the future.
6. “Building a decentralized big platform and ecology through community autonomy” is the original intention of WaykiChain, and this is also the big vision of WaykiChain. What difficulties has WaykiChain encountered in building a globally decentralized consensus? How did you overcome these difficulties?
Gordon Gao: At the beginning, we only divided the domestic market and overseas markets. The main job of overseas markets is to publish articles and contents which achieved very little success. The language, culture, social platforms, per capita income, and the cognition level of cryptocurrency vary from country to country. And if we only use online communication, the information is too fragmented to help others understand your project in depth.
After continuous experimentation, we decided to adopt the mode of offline(entering)-online(maintenance). We organized offline meetups and recruited WaykiChain Global Ambassadors. And then, we transferred to online maintenance, which has achieved success.
Now we have organized 10 meetups with our global ambassadors, and have established telegram groups in nearly 20 countries and regions, including South Korea, Iran, Japan, Vietnam, Turkey, Indonesia, and the Philippines, with high daily engagements. The last time I did AMA in our Iranian group, the local media asked some very professional questions which show our Iranian fans have in-depth knowledge of our project. Now, WaykiChain team brings people from different countries to work together and becomes more international.
7. WaykiChain ranks first with a measured average TPS of 3300 (Measured Peak TPS 7800). And WaykiChain launched WUSD which is developed on the bottom layer of the public chain. What convenience and value will this bring to payment and commerce?
Gordon Gao: The Defi system that WaykiChain is going to achieve is a decentralized bank without borders
In daily life, most people go to the bank to do deposits, loans, exchange, buy financial products and so on. These functions are also available on WaykiChain and users can enjoy lower interest rates.
The average deposit rate in Europe is between 0 and 0.3%. However, if we launch the new application of WUSD, Europeans can use fiat currency to buy WUSD and then gain at least 3 points of interest. This part of the interest comes from the mortgage interest paid by the mortgage borrower to the system. This part may be can achieve 6 points or more. In this way, the system also earns a cut of the discount. So, this is a three-win business.
Defi is a business model that enables blockchain companies to truly implement possible commercial application scenarios. For example, Huatong Securities provides brokerage services on HK and US stocks to global customers with its unique WUSD-based payment solution Ordinary people are difficult to open an account to trade Hong Kong stocks in HK exchanges. However, now users can use WUSD to trade and invest HK/US Pre-IPO to make money. The HK Pre-IPO market now has an annualized income of 20–40% on average. Therefore, many people in the WaykiChain community now pledge WICC to generate WUSD and use WUSD to buy Hong Kong and US stocks to make new money. It can not only enjoy the potential appreciation space of WICC but also improve capital utilization.
8. WaykiChain has established a 3-token economic model (WICC / WUSD / WGRT) with more financial stability and scalability. Please introduce this model to us. What are the advantages of the WaykiChain 3-token economic model compared to the common single-token economic model?
Gordon Gao: As the base currency of Defi, WUSD is a stablecoin that is just needed in the investment market for deposits and loans. At the same time, WUSD can also be used as a payment tool, which is much more convenient than using other digital currencies with large volatility.
WaykiChain (WGRT) is our governance coins. All interest generated from borrowing WUSD and the liquidation penalty will be repurchased on the market to destroy WGRT. We don’t use WICC because if we use WICC, it means that the collateralized currency and the risk-proof currency are the same types. This model is the same as the model of BTS. The BTS black swan event has verified that this economic model does not work. Therefore, the emergence of governance coins is inevitable.
9. 2019 can be called “the year of Defi loans”, and 2020 will be the “year of Defi derivatives”, so how will DeFi develop in 2020? What is WaykiChain’s strategy?
Gordon Gao: Defi is definitely still a hot topic in the blockchain industry in 2020. From Huobi BTC(HBTC) which is released by Huobi, it can also be seen that exchanges that do centralized finance are also developing Defi. Loans and deposits are still rigid demands in the market.
Although derivatives have huge business opportunities, their outbreak in the Defi field may not be so fast. Because the market capability and liquidity of Defi are still limited. In addition, cryptocurrency enthusiasts have limited knowledge of derivatives. Now, Defi obviously still has some opportunities and the market is not occupied. For example, Bitcoin-based Defi has not yet been implemented. Of course, the emergence of HBTC promoted the development of Bitcoin-based Defi. However, its specific effects need time to verify. Moreover, Other public chain projects are still in the process of developing Defi. At present, only Ethereum’s Defi business has formed a certain scale, and WaykiChain might be the second-largest Defi platform which is developed on the public chain after Ethereum. Some users from WaykiChain do not own Ethereum, but if they own WaykiChain (WICC), they can also do collateralizing.
Since WaykiChain has launched the Defi platform, it has collateralized over 24 million WICC and issued over USD 1.4 million in WUSD. WaykiChain’s strategy in Defi is mainly to satisfy both supply and demand. Firstly, we will continue to increase the amount of WICC total collateral and expand the issuance of WUSD. Secondly, we will keep working hard to expand and develop commercial application scenarios of WUSD. Finally, we will keep innovating and explore more new products and technology. WaykiChain will continuously make contributions in the world blockchain industry with its leading specialization.
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[Bull Market Sharing Class №273] Why does WaykiChain (WICC) soar after the start of 2020? With the advent of the bull market, how does WaykiChain perfect their Defi ecosystem and occupy the market?

[Bull Market Sharing Class №273] Why does WaykiChain (WICC) soar after the start of 2020? With the advent of the bull market, how does WaykiChain perfect their Defi ecosystem and occupy the market?
https://preview.redd.it/6357r29zl1l41.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b6f7efa4c13ef8ebc35c0c8757fce31f91ad6f8f
As a world’s leading blockchain company focused on blockchain’s underlying technology and related ecosystem technology, WaykiChain owns an industry-leading public chain. Relying on the inherent technical advantages of blockchain and its superior R&D strength, WaykiChain is empowered with high-performance transaction processing capabilities (TPS3300), efficient mechanism of consensus (DPoS + pBFT), powerful smart contract, as well as the blockchain ecological decentralized control ability, WaykiChain can provide various major industries and key areas of vertical industry with infrastructure services and industry solutions.
At present, the bottom layer of the WaykiChain public chain has been continuously upgraded and optimized and has achieved significant success. WaykiChain stablecoin WUSD, which is developed on the bottom of the public chain, is one of the important infrastructures of blockchain finance promoted by WaykiChain. It is also continuously improving the potential of decentralized business development.
At 20:00 on February 14th, at the invitation of the “Bull Market Sharing Class”, Gordon Gao, the Co-Founder, and CEO of WaykiChain made sharing of the theme “ Why does WaykiChain (WICC) soar after the start of 2020? With the advent of the bull market, how does WaykiChain perfect their Defi ecosystem and occupy the market?”
Gordon Gao Background: Gordon Gao, WaykiChain Co-Founder & CEO, an Alumni of Columbia University in New York, former Chief Data Scientist of Fishbowl in Wall Street, ex-Senior Data Analyst of Alibaba Group, a senior member of Mensa International Club, currently serves as WaykiChain CEO. He is responsible for offering support to WaykiChain commercial model designing and strategy planning, building up a digitalized monitor system for products and operation and promoting WaykiChain overseas market with his international background.
The Following is the content of sharing from Gordon Gao:
1.WaykiChain is a third-generation blockchain commercial public chain that aims to build a world-leading public chain brand. How does the performance of WaykiChain compare to other public chains on the market?
Gordon Gao: In terms of performance, WaykiChain’s TPS ranks first with a measured average of 3300 in the world. Besides, our ecological construction in the DApp field and Defi is also gradually perfect. Last year, we introduced more than 20 DApps. Since WaykiChain has launched the Defi platform, it has collateralized over 24 million WICC and issued over USD 1.4 million in WUSD.
2. Recently, WaykiChain(WICC) is well received by Korean investors, and its trading volume has exceeded 70 billion WON. How does WaykiChain achieve such outstanding results?
Gordon Gao: When WaykiChain(WICC) was listed on Bithumb, WICC’s premium was three times the domestic price. Recent market conditions are very good. The maximum price in South Korea is up to 10 times the domestic price.
Our investment in the Korean market has always been very large. As early as 2018 May, WaykiChain Global Conference which was attracted thousands of persons to participate was successfully held in Seoul. After that, we did a lot of publicity around the Korean market, such as the content promotion and SEO promotion of their NAVER search engine. Last year, we also held WaykiChain(WICC) X Huobi Korea Hackathon and offline meetup in South Korea. I have also been invited three times to give speeches and conducting exhibitions at Korean blockchain conferences. And our CTO Richard Chen was invited to interview with the Korean media, which was broadcast by Korean KBS TV station. South Korean users are very impressed with WaykiChain. When WaykiChain held the Hackathon in South Korea last year, a Korean investor came over and told us that he also came to our conference in 2018 and also received gold bars. He told us he was very happy to see our development so that he came to support us this time. When we have this kind of market enthusiasm, it is not unusual for prices to be reflected in the exchange.
3. According to media reports, WaykiChain has a strong technical team and has made a lot of progress in technology development. It has planned a four-public chain version iteration plan. What innovations and breakthroughs has WaykiChain achieved in technology?
Gordon Gao: The current version is WaykiChain public chain v2.0 version (Teng version) that we updated in October last year. We added the decentralized exchange and developed a CDP system at the bottom of the public chain for pledging WICC to get stablecoin WUSD. We developed a 3-token economy model (WICC, WUSD, WGRT) and increased the speed of block generation from 10 seconds per block to 3 seconds per block, which greatly improving user experience. This version lays the foundation for us to achieve decentralized financial functions, and directly implements the three most important functions of Defi at the moment: stablecoin, lending, and DEX.
We are developing the public chain v3.0 version (Hu version) now. In the public chain v3.0 version, we will further improve the performance and scalability of the current decentralized exchange, allowing anyone to publish their own DEX on the chain. Meanwhile, we will introduce WASM to greatly improve the performance and developer-friendly of the virtual machine.
At the same time, in the next public chain version, we will soon launch the WASM virtual machine, which greatly improves the performance of the virtual machine and makes it developer-friendly. Porting virtual machine is a project with high technical difficulty. We learned that several projects ranked among the top 30 in market value are also developing WASM virtual machines. It took us several months to complete the porting of WASM, which fully demonstrates our technical strength. In addition, in the next version, we will provide a decentralized cross-chain solution so that more digital assets can operate in the WaykiChain Defi eco-system.
4. We all know that WaykiChain has conducted in-depth reciprocal visits with the Montenegro government and exchanged views on blockchain technology reform in the field of Montenegro International Trade and Finance. What new knowledge and experiences have you gained through international cooperation? How do these experiences inspire you to give WaykiChain more business value and promote the implementation of decentralized financial applications?
Gordon Gao: Firstly, the government thinks differently from ours. For example, we only consider whether a business model can improve efficiency and reduce costs, but the government will also consider how to coordinate all stakeholders and make a balance. We discussed the issuance of stablecoins with them. If stablecoins are controlled by the central bank and all are on the chain, then the commercial banks below the central bank will not be able to adopt the original method. If addition, currency is issued through leverage, this is a weakening of existing stakeholders and it is difficult to continue. So, both of us are still exploring better solutions, and strive to not only improve efficiency through the blockchain but also meet all existing stakeholders.
Moreover, there is also a shortage of technical talents and human resources in some European countries and regions. They welcome Chinese blockchain teams like us to export technology and solutions to them. This is a very good opportunity for WaykiChain and other Chinese blockchain teams.
Thirdly, the cheap money policy of the European Central Bank can cause huge interest rate differences between European and Asian currencies. This contains huge market space and business opportunities, and the Defi system aims at this.
5. WaykiChain will complete the cross-chain process of BTC and ETH in the first half of 2020, and the mortgage lending system through stablecoin will be launched simultaneously. It is expected that there will be a new round of explosive growth around WUSD’s Pre-IPO business and loans. What is WUSD and what are its uses?
Gordon Gao: WaykiChain WUSD, the first stablecoin developed on Core Layer of the public chain, is issued through over-collateralization with value anchored to USD.
WUSD is the cornerstone of the WaykiChain Defi system. WUSD can be cashed in USDT or fiat currency. In other words, users can pledge their WICC to borrow cash. This principle is the same as a loan from a bank. WUSD can buy WICC or WGRT (governance coin) in WaykiChain DEX. This means that giving leverage to those who hold WaykiChain coins. WUSD can also be used in WaykiChain ecological applications. For example, Huatong Securities provides brokerage services on HK and US stocks to global customers with its unique WUSD-based payment solution which means that opening up the digital currency and traditional financial channels. Also, recently, we plan to launch a new application just like bank demand loans. Users can buy WUSD as wealth management. Of course, there will be derivatives based on WUSD pricing in the future.
6. “Building a decentralized big platform and ecology through community autonomy” is the original intention of WaykiChain, and this is also the big vision of WaykiChain. What difficulties has WaykiChain encountered in building a globally decentralized consensus? How did you overcome these difficulties?
Gordon Gao: At the beginning, we only divided the domestic market and overseas markets. The main job of overseas markets is to publish articles and contents which achieved very little success. The language, culture, social platforms, per capita income, and the cognition level of cryptocurrency vary from country to country. And if we only use online communication, the information is too fragmented to help others understand your project in depth.
After continuous experimentation, we decided to adopt the mode of offline(entering)-online(maintenance). We organized offline meetups and recruited WaykiChain Global Ambassadors. And then, we transferred to online maintenance, which has achieved success.
Now we have organized 10 meetups with our global ambassadors, and have established telegram groups in nearly 20 countries and regions, including South Korea, Iran, Japan, Vietnam, Turkey, Indonesia, and the Philippines, with high daily engagements. The last time I did AMA in our Iranian group, the local media asked some very professional questions which show our Iranian fans have in-depth knowledge of our project. Now, WaykiChain team brings people from different countries to work together and becomes more international.
7. WaykiChain ranks first with a measured average TPS of 3300 (Measured Peak TPS 7800). And WaykiChain launched WUSD which is developed on the bottom layer of the public chain. What convenience and value will this bring to payment and commerce?
Gordon Gao: The Defi system that WaykiChain is going to achieve is a decentralized bank without borders
In daily life, most people go to the bank to do deposits, loans, exchange, buy financial products and so on. These functions are also available on WaykiChain and users can enjoy lower interest rates.
The average deposit rate in Europe is between 0 and 0.3%. However, if we launch the new application of WUSD, Europeans can use fiat currency to buy WUSD and then gain at least 3 points of interest. This part of the interest comes from the mortgage interest paid by the mortgage borrower to the system. This part may be can achieve 6 points or more. In this way, the system also earns a cut of the discount. So, this is a three-win business.
Defi is a business model that enables blockchain companies to truly implement possible commercial application scenarios. For example, Huatong Securities provides brokerage services on HK and US stocks to global customers with its unique WUSD-based payment solution Ordinary people are difficult to open an account to trade Hong Kong stocks in HK exchanges. However, now users can use WUSD to trade and invest HK/US Pre-IPO to make money. The HK Pre-IPO market now has an annualized income of 20–40% on average. Therefore, many people in the WaykiChain community now pledge WICC to generate WUSD and use WUSD to buy Hong Kong and US stocks to make new money. It can not only enjoy the potential appreciation space of WICC but also improve capital utilization.
8. WaykiChain has established a 3-token economic model (WICC / WUSD / WGRT) with more financial stability and scalability. Please introduce this model to us. What are the advantages of the WaykiChain 3-token economic model compared to the common single-token economic model?
Gordon Gao: As the base currency of Defi, WUSD is a stablecoin that is just needed in the investment market for deposits and loans. At the same time, WUSD can also be used as a payment tool, which is much more convenient than using other digital currencies with large volatility.
WaykiChain (WGRT) is our governance coins. All interest generated from borrowing WUSD and the liquidation penalty will be repurchased on the market to destroy WGRT. We don’t use WICC because if we use WICC, it means that the collateralized currency and the risk-proof currency are the same types. This model is the same as the model of BTS. The BTS black swan event has verified that this economic model does not work. Therefore, the emergence of governance coins is inevitable.
9. 2019 can be called “the year of Defi loans”, and 2020 will be the “year of Defi derivatives”, so how will DeFi develop in 2020? What is WaykiChain’s strategy?
Gordon Gao: Defi is definitely still a hot topic in the blockchain industry in 2020. From Huobi BTC(HBTC) which is released by Huobi, it can also be seen that exchanges that do centralized finance are also developing Defi. Loans and deposits are still rigid demands in the market.
Although derivatives have huge business opportunities, their outbreak in the Defi field may not be so fast. Because the market capability and liquidity of Defi are still limited. In addition, cryptocurrency enthusiasts have limited knowledge of derivatives. Now, Defi obviously still has some opportunities and the market is not occupied. For example, Bitcoin-based Defi has not yet been implemented. Of course, the emergence of HBTC promoted the development of Bitcoin-based Defi. However, its specific effects need time to verify. Moreover, Other public chain projects are still in the process of developing Defi. At present, only Ethereum’s Defi business has formed a certain scale, and WaykiChain might be the second-largest Defi platform which is developed on the public chain after Ethereum. Some users from WaykiChain do not own Ethereum, but if they own WaykiChain (WICC), they can also do collateralizing.
Since WaykiChain has launched the Defi platform, it has collateralized over 24 million WICC and issued over USD 1.4 million in WUSD. WaykiChain’s strategy in Defi is mainly to satisfy both supply and demand. Firstly, we will continue to increase the amount of WICC total collateral and expand the issuance of WUSD. Secondly, we will keep working hard to expand and develop commercial application scenarios of WUSD. Finally, we will keep innovating and explore more new products and technology. WaykiChain will continuously make contributions in the world blockchain industry with its leading specialization.
submitted by Waykichain to WICCProject [link] [comments]

Why Is Cryptocurrency Going Up And Down?

Why Is Cryptocurrency Going Up And Down?
When discussing the crypto market, people often pay attention to its high volatility. For some volatility is a scary part of investing and buying ‘the future of money’. For others, it is a chance of getting hilariously rich. So why is cryptocurrency volatility such a big deal? Is it good or bad? Today we will try to explain it. What does volatility mean?
In the simplest terms, volatility is a mathematical tool or index by which we measure the price movements over time for a traded financial instrument or asset.
Usually, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is calculated within a specific period: a week, a month or a year. On the basis of monthly or yearly volatility, it is already possible to draw some conclusions and make forecasts on trading strategies.
https://preview.redd.it/3k51gkisf4r31.jpg?width=1050&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2c1fe96068ba0b328a7afc6da149d602fa34d197
The rates of any of the assets, including crypto are rarely stable. It is usually influenced by demand and supply from ordinary customers and investors, traders, economic and political situations and so on. Of course, compared to traditional assets, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is really high. The average annual volatility of fiat currencies usually does not exceed 3–4%. On the other hand, for example, is Bitcoin which experienced massive growth in 2017, growing from $700 to almost $20.000. That’s a staggering 27.000% rate of return in merely 12 months.
So what are the main factors causing the volatility in the crypto world?
  • Lack of regulation.
All fiat currencies are supported by governments, which simply will not allow them to fall or rise in value for no apparent reason. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and are not supported by any structures, which causes certain changes in their rates.
  • Not tied to physical values.
For example, the exchange rates of many currencies depend on the minerals produced in the country (like oil or gas), as they make up a significant part of exports. The fact that cryptocurrencies are not tied to tangible values causes a certain dissonance in some minds. It is worth mentioning that some crypto coins are backed by real-world currency and traditional assets (for example, Tether which is tied to the USD and some other digital coins).
  • No real value.
If the approximate value of corporate shares can be calculated by specific indicators of their activities, unfortunately, there are no such tools in case of digital currencies. In fact, they exist in a kind of a vacuum, and sometimes their rates change for unclear reasons.
  • Infant market.
A young market backed by new technology is much more volatile than traditional investments that are mature and have been time-tested. New technologies take time to be perfected and adopted by the general masses, and there is a high risk of failure since there are many things that can go wrong.
  • Speculation.
The cryptocurrency has often been seen as a hotbed for speculation, which induces market instability. This creates an environment filled with tremendous risks.
As you can see volatility is an important aspect of cryptocurrencies, but actually, it is a double-edged sword.
Almost everyone speaks about the volatility of crypto coins in a negative tone because, in the traditional economy, high volatility is more of a negative than a positive indicator. However, the volatility of the cryptocurrency world has its own advantages. Mainly for traders in the crypto market, because one transaction can bring lots of profit. Thanks to this, many traders will continue entering the cryptocurrency market. Also, high volatility increases trading volumes and ultimately contributes to the popularity of crypto coins.
On the other hand, it, of course, has disadvantages:
High risks. Simply put, if the currency rates are swinging so much, where is the guarantee that one day it will not fall to the minimum values? These risks push business away from crypto transactions.
Unpredictability. Nowadays it is very difficult to say how much and why the crypto rate will fall and grow.
The crypto market is still trying to find its way. No doubt that cryptocurrencies will become more widespread in all spheres of our life. Nowadays, developers are trying to solve the problem of volatility by creating Stablecoins. But it would be a stretch to say that these alternative cryptocurrencies will be the entire future of cryptocurrencies. Probably after the recognition at the state level and the protection of investors participating in the ICO, longer-term players will start entering the crypto market and the volatility of rates will decrease.
How are you dealing with the volatility of crypto coins? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below!
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world.
For all requests message us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

Bitcoin as the Ultimate Haven from Hyperinflation: A Country By Country Analysis Of Worldwide Fiat Currency Inflation

Bitcoin as the Ultimate Haven from Hyperinflation: A Country By Country Analysis Of Worldwide Fiat Currency Inflation
https://cryptoiq.co/bitcoin-as-the-ultimate-haven-from-hyperinflation-a-country-by-country-analysis-of-worldwide-fiat-currency-inflation/
Bitcoin was created during the Great Recession that started in 2008, when the governments of the world printed trillions of dollars to bail out banks and corporations. Satoshi Nakamoto intended Bitcoin to be a decentralized form of money that could not be printed by governments at will. In the the Genesis Block Satoshi included the message “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of the second bailout for banks.”
Fiat currencies continue to be the dominant form of global currency, but it seems logical that, if fiat currencies were to hyperinflate and collapse, Bitcoin would become the dominant global currency.
This is because Bitcoin can be sent instantly anywhere in the world and is cryptographically secure. It is easy enough to integrate Bitcoin into any e-commerce store or physical store, and the customers of the future will be able to send Bitcoin from their smartphones via QR codes. Therefore, if fiat currency becomes obsolete, Bitcoin could seamlessly take its place and keep the global economy running.
There has been plenty of hype that fiat currencies are collapsing, but this article will explore the current state of major fiat currencies in the world to ascertain the true situation. This is important information since the rate of fiat currency inflation by country is an important factor that will determine Bitcoin adoption rates and ultimately Bitcoin’s price.
United States’ Inflation Rate
The United States is perhaps the best place to start an analysis of global fiat inflation, since the USD is the world’s dominant fiat currency and perhaps the most stable long term. That being said, there is 2-3 percent annual inflation in the United States.
If we split the difference at a 2.5 percent annual inflation rate, it means $100,000 stored in a bank will lose a whopping $22,400 of value over the course of 10 years, corresponding to 22.4 percent inflation per 10 years. Therefore, even in the United States, saving money long term seems impractical, and this essentially forces people to risk their savings by investing in the hopes that the money earned from investing will outpace inflation.
It appears inflation will only worsen in the United States since the national debt is approaching $22 trillion, with a budget deficit of $1 trillion per year and growing. This situation will likely lead to increased money printing, which would increase the inflation rate. Therefore, saving money in USD long term does not make financial sense. Bitcoin is an alternative way to store money long term, although Bitcoin has yet to mature and can be extremely volatile from year to year.
Euro (EUR) Inflation Rate Is 37.5 percent Relative To USD During The Last 10 Years
One of the primary global currencies besides the USD is the Euro (EUR). For the rest of this global analysis, fiat currencies will be compared to the USD exchange rate to determine inflation, but it must be kept in mind that the USD itself is inflating at the rate of 2 to 3 percent per year.
When the EUR launched in 1999, the exchange rate was one USD per 0.85 EUR. By 2002 the EUR weakened to 1.16 EUR per USD. The EUR then entered a period of vigorous strengthening, and the exchange rate fell to 0.64 EUR per USD by 2008. The Great Recession caused the EUR to begin weakening versus the USD long term, and currently each USD is worth 0.88 EUR. This represents 37.5 percent inflation relative to the USD in roughly 10 years.
Back to the storing money in a bank analogy, $100,000 of EUR stored over the past 10 years would have lost the EUR inflation rate + the USD inflation rate. With this sort of inflation rate it seems dangerous to store money in EUR long term.
It gets worse. The EUR is one of the top global fiat currencies, and there are many currencies doing worse than the EUR.
United Kingdom’s Pound Has 65 Percent Inflation Relative to USD in 11 Years
The United Kingdom (UK) is one of nine European Union (EU) countries that does not use the EUR, and eventually, the UK will leave the EU via the Brexit. However, the native Great Britain Pound (GBP) has done far worse than the Euro, with the exchange rate going from 0.48 GBP per USD in 2007 to 0.79 GBP per USD currently. This is 65 percent inflation relative to the USD during the past 11 years.
Canada’s Inflation Rate Is 45.2 Percent Relative to USD During the Last 7 Years
The United States’ neighbor to the north is similar to the United States in many respects. It is a fully developed and industrialized first world country. However the native fiat currency, the Canadian Dollar (CAD), has been experiencing severe inflation since the Great Recession. In 2011 1 USD was worth 0.95 CAD, and now the exchange rate is 1.36 CAD per USD. This represents 43.2 percent inflation relative to the USD since 2011, and of course, the USD has an underlying inflation rate as well of 16.2 percent during the last 7 years.
Even in the first world country of Canada, it is becoming impossible to save cash for retirement or even for short-term goals like buying a house, forcing people to invest in the risky stock market.
Mexico’s Inflation Rate Is 97.6 Percent Relative to the USD During Past 10 Years
Since the 2008 financial crisis, the exchange rate of the Mexican Peso (MXN) has gone from 10.12 MXN per USD to 20 MXN per USD. This represents 97.6 percent inflation relative to the USD, and USD inflation means the true Mexican inflation rate is well over 100 percent per 10 years. This sort of inflation rate ensures that people have to work their entire lives and can never retire, and overall, this sort of inflation can cause the entire economy of Mexico to struggle. Bitcoin seems like an obvious alternative to holding MXN long term.
It is quite shocking that a country bordering the United States has such high inflation, yet the mainstream media never mentions it.
Russia Has 194 Percent Inflation Relative to USD Since the 2008 Great Recession
Russia is a global superpower, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $1.58 trillion versus the United States’ $19.39 trillion GDP. Despite being a superpower, the native currency of Russia, the Russian Ruble (RUB), has gone from 23.48 RUB per USD in 2008 to 69.08 RUB per USD currently. This yields a 194 percent 10 year inflation rate relative to the USD. Clearly, the Great Recession that started in 2008 is a common point when fiat inflation accelerated in many countries around the world.
Japan’s Inflation Rate Is 46 Percent Relative to USD Over the Past 7 Years
Japan is a first-world country and has one of the most important stock markets in the world. The GDP of Japan is ranked number three in the world at nearly $5 trillion. However, its inflation rate is far higher than the United States, at least since 2011. In 2011, the exchange rate was 76 JPY per USD, but it has now risen to 111 JPY per USD, a 46 percent inflation rate relative to the USD over the past 7 years. This is actually almost exactly the same as Canada’s inflation rate.
China’s Inflation Is Only 14.4 Percent Relative to USD Since 2013, but China Tightly Controls the CNY
China is the second ranking economy in the world with a $12 trillion GDP. Its position as the number one trading partner of the United States gives it power to manipulate the exchange rate of its native currency the Chinese Yuan (CNY). The CNY actually strengthened greatly versus the USD until 2013, when China relaxed its control over the CNY exchange rate to make it more competitive in the global import and export markets. Chinese control over the CNY and therefore, control over the profitability of Chinese imports, is a primary reason for the “trade war” between China and the United States.
Since allowing the CNY to lose value relative to the USD, the exchange rate has gone from 6.04 CNY per USD in 2013 to 6.91 CNY per USD currently, a 14.4 percent inflation relative to the USD in 5 years. China is an outlier and has one of the lowest inflation rates relative to the USD.
Switzerland Has One Of The Lowest Inflation Rates At Less Than 5 percent Relative To The USD In 7 Years
Switzerland has remained independent of the European Union and does not use the EUR. Instead, it uses the Swiss Franc (CHF). The CHF actually strengthened greatly relative to the USD during the Great Recession, but the trend reversed in 2011. There was a rapid devaluation of the CHF relative to the USD from 0.76 CHF per USD to 0.94 CHF per USD during 2011. In The 7 years since then, the CHF has roughly five percent inflation relative to the USD and sits at 0.99 CHF per USD currently.
That being said, it cannot be forgotten that the USD itself is experiencing 2.5 percent inflation per year, so even countries that have low inflation rates relative to the USD have a significant inflation rate overall.
India Has Seen 79 Percent Inflation Relative to USD Since the Great Recession Began
India has the sixth highest GDP in the world at $2.6 trillion, and the second highest population at 1.34 billion. Since the Great Recession began, the Indian Rupee (INR) has gone from 39.18 per USD to 70.14 INR per USD, a 79 percent inflation relative to the USD in 11 years. Unfortunately, India is slowly making Bitcoin more illegal and could fully outlaw it, so citizens may have to break the law in the future in the event that inflation accelerates and Bitcoin becomes a preferred way to store money.
Indonesia Has 76 Percent Inflation Relative to the USD in Seven Years
Indonesia has a population of 265 million, not far behind the United States, but its GDP is 20 times less than the United States at $1 trillion. Part of the reason Indonesia’s economy is weaker may be that the native fiat currency, the Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) has gone from 8,250 per USD in 2011 to 14,550 IDR per USD currently. This is 76 percent inflation relative to the USD in 7 years, around the same rate as India. However, Indonesia has banned Bitcoin as of 2018, which would make it difficult for citizens to use Bitcoin in the event inflation spirals out of control.
Brazil Has 152 percent Inflation Relative To USD In Past Seven Years, Despite Being the Strongest Economy In South America
Brazil has the most powerful economy in South America with a $2 trillion GDP. However, South America as a whole is experiencing out of control hyperinflation, and Brazil seems to be feeling the effects. The Brazilian Real (BRL) has gone from 1.55 per USD in 2011 to 3.91 BRL per USD currently. This is 152 percent inflation relative to the USD in 7 years. There does not appear to be any inflation safe haven in South America, and this could make South America a Bitcoin adoption hotspot.
Venezuela Has Ridiculous Inflation Around One million percent Per Year; Bolivar Collapsing
The end game of fiat currency inflation, if left unchecked, is currency collapse. A classic example of currency collapse is the situation in Venezuela, where the Cafe Con Leche Index suggests 400,000 percent inflation per year, although if a shorter term average is used it is 1 million percent per year or more. It would be shocking if the native fiat currency of Venezuela, the Sovereign Bolivar (VES), is still usable one year from now. Bitcoin is legal in Venezuela, and there is plenty of news which indicates people are abandoning the VES for Bitcoin.
South Korea Has Zero Inflation Relative to the USD
South Korea is considered a powerful economy relative to most of the world, with a GDP of $1.5 trillion despite the country’s small size. The South Korean Won (SKW) has essentially zero inflation relative to the USD long term aside from an exchange rate shock during the 2008 Great Recession. That being said, inflation is still a reality in South Korea since the USD has average inflation of 2.5 percent per year.
Australia Has 53 Percent Inflation Relative to the USD in Seven Years
Australia essentially has a continent to itself, but it is not isolated from the global fiat inflation crisis. The AUD actually strengthened massively versus the USD from 2001 to 2011. However, the trend reversed, and the exchange rate has gone from 0.93 AUD per USD in 2011 to 1.42 AUD per USD currently. This is 53 percent inflation relative to the USD in seven years.
Israel Has Zero Inflation Relative To USD Long Term
Israel is in the Middle East but does not have strong connections to the economy of the rest of the Middle East and, apparently, a different monetary policy than most of the rest of the world. Israel is only comparable to the United States, South Korea, and perhaps Switzerland when it comes to fiat currency since the Israeli New Shekel (ILS) has practically zero inflation relative to the USD long term although there are shorter term oscillations. Like the other countries listed with zero USD relative inflation, inflation still exists because the USD itself is inflating.
In total, there are 180 fiat currencies in the world, and here, we’re covering just 16 of them. We could keep going, but the trend is already clear. Even in major countries with powerful economies, inflation has become a serious issue, with some major countries experiencing 50-200 percent inflation relative to the USD over the past decade, and those numbers don’t even take in the 2.5 percent per year USD inflation underlying them.
It is possible that worldwide fiat inflation will accelerate due to the growing global debt crisis. That’s especially true if an economic recession occurs since that would force a rapid increase in money printing.
So we’re in a global situation that needs to be actively monitored. Even if the status quo is maintained long term, most of the world’s population cannot realistically save money for the future because it’s going to lose value over time. This is a major shift from our parents’ generation when saving money was the smart thing to do.
The good news is Bitcoin is waiting on the sidelines. It’s ready to become the global currency if fiat currency collapses worldwide. Even if fiat does not totally collapse, perhaps once Bitcoin matures and becomes more stable, it will be a good option for saving money long term since its value is independent of fiat inflation.
submitted by turtlecane to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Decred Journal – July 2018

Note: you can read this on Medium, GitHub or old Reddit to view all the links

Development

dcrd: Several steps towards multipeer downloads completed: an optimization to use in-memory block index and a new 1337 chain view. Maintenance: improved test coverage, upgrading dependency management system and preparing for the upcoming Go 1.11 release.
dcrwallet: A big change introducing optional privacy-preserving SPV sync mode was merged. In this mode dcrwallet does not download the full blockchain but only gets the "filters", uses them to determine which blocks it needs and fetches them from random nodes on the network. This has on-disk footprint of 300-400 MB and sync time of minutes, compared to ~3.4 GB and sync time of hours for full sync (these are rough estimates).
jy-p: the server side of SPV (in dcrd) was deployed in v1.2.0, the client side of SPV (in dcrwallet) is in our next release, v1.3.0. Still some minor bugs in SPV that are being worked out. There will be an update to add the latest features from BIP 157/158 in the next few months. SPV will be optional in v1.3.0, but it will become the default after we get a proper header commitment for it (#general)
Decrediton: besides regular bugfixes and design improvements, several components are being developed in parallel like SPV mode, Politeia integration and Trezor support.
Politeia: testing started on mainnet, thanks to everyone who is participating. A lot of testing, bugfixing and polishing is happening in preparation for full mainnet launch. There are also a few missing features to be added before launch, e.g. capacity to edit a proposal and versioning for that, discussion to remain open once voting starts. Decrediton integration is moving forward, check out this video for a demo and this meta issue for the full checklist.
Trezor: Decrediton integration of initial Trezor support is in progress and there is a demo.
Android: app design version 2.0 completed.
dcrdata: development of several chart visualizations was completed and is awaiting deployment. Specifically, voting agendas and historic charts are merged while ticket pool visualization is in testing.
atomicswap: @glendc is seeking reviews of his Ethereum support pull request.
Dev activity stats for July: 252 active PRs, 220 master commits, 34,754 added and 12,847 deleted lines spread across 6 repositories. Contributions came from 6-10 developers per repository. (chart)

Network

Hashrate: the month started at 40.5 and ended at 51.6 PH/s, with a low of 33.3 and a new all time high of 68.4 PH/s. F2Pool is leading with 40-45%, followed by the new BeePool at 15-25% and coinmine.pl at 18-23%.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 92.6 DCR (-2.1). The price started the month at 94.6 and quickly retreated to month's low of 85 until 1,860 tickets were bought within a single period (versus target 720). This pushed the pool of tickets to 41,970 (2.5% above target), which in turn caused 10 price increases in a row to the month's high of 100.4. This was the highest ticket price seen on the new ticket price algorithm which has been in effect since Jul 2017. Second half of the month there was unusually low volatility between 92 and 94 DCR per ticket. Locked DCR held between 3.75 and 3.87 million or 46.6-48.0% of supply (+0.1% from previous peak).
Nodes: there are 212 public listening and 216 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 67% on v1.2.0 (+10%), 24% on v1.1.2 (-1%), 7% on v1.1.0 (-7%). Node count data is not perfect but we can see the steady trend of upgrading to v1.2.0. This version of dcrd is notable for serving compact filters. The increased count of such full nodes allows the developers to test SPV client mode in preparations for the upcoming v1.3.0 release.

ASICs

Obelisk posted three updates in July. For the most recent daily updates join their Discord.
New miner from iBeLink: DSM7T hashes Blake256 at 7 TH/s or Blake2b at 3.5 TH/s, consumes 2,100 W and costs $3,800, shipping Aug 5-10.
There were also speculations about the mysterious Pangolin Whatsminer DCR with the speed of 44 TH/s at 2,200 W and the cost of $3,888, shipping November. If you know more about it please share with us in #pow-mining channel.

Integrations

Meet new stake pool: dcrpool.ibitlin.com has 1% fees and is hosted by @life.
An interesting detail about decredbrasil.com stake pool was posted in chat:
emiliomann: stakebrasil is one of the pools with the lowest number of missed and expired tickets. It was one of the first and has a smaller percentage than the most recent ones who haven’t had the time to do so. (...) The Brazilian pool should be the one with the more servers spread around the world: 6 to decrease the latency. This is to explain to you why the [pool fee] rate of 5% (currently around 0.06 DCR) on the reward is also one of the highest. girino: 8 voting wallets now. I just finished setting up a new one yesterday. All of them in different datacenters, 3 in europe, 3 in north america, 1 in brazil and one in asia. We also have 3 more servers, 1 for the front end, one for "stats" and one for dcrdata. (#general)
On the mining side, Luxor started a new set of pool servers inside mainland China, while zpool has enabled Decred mining.
StatX announced Decred integration into their live dashboard and public chat.
Decred was added to Satowallet with BTC and ETH trading pairs. Caution: do your best to understand the security model before using any wallet software.

Adoption

VotoLegal update:
Marina Silva is the first presidential candidate in Brazil using blockchain to keep all their electoral donations transparent and traceable. VotoLegal uses Decred technology, awesome use case! (reddit)
The story was covered by criptonoticias.com (translated) and livecoins.com.br (translated), the latter received hundreds of upvotes and comments on brasil.
On the OTC trading front, @i2Rav from i2trading reports:
We continue to see institutional interest in DCR. Large block buyers love the concept of staking as a way to earn additional income and appreciate the stakeholder rights it affords them. Likening a DCR investment to an activist shareholdebondholder gives these institutions some comfort while dipping their toes into a burgeoning new asset class.

Marketing

Targeted advertising reports released for June and July. As usual, reach @timhebel for full versions.
Big news in June: Facebook reversed their policy on banning crypto ads. ICO ads are still banned, but we should be OK. My team filled out the appeal today, so we should hopefully hear something within a few days. (u/timhebel on reddit)
After couple weeks Facebook finally responded to the appeal and the next step is to verify the domain name via DNS.
A pack of Stakey Telegram stickers is now available. Have fun!

Events

Attended:
Upcoming:

Media

Featured articles:
Articles:
Some articles are omitted due to low quality or factual errors.
Translations:
Videos:

Community Discussions

Community stats:
Comm systems update:
Articles:
Twitter: Ari Paul debates "There can be only one" aka "highlander argument".
Reddit and Forum: how ticket pool size influences average vote time; roadmap concerns; why ticket price was volatile; ideas for using Reddit chat for dcrtrader and alternative chat systems; insette's write-up on Andrew Stone's GROUP proposal for miner-validated tokenization that is superior to current OP_RETURN-based schemes; James Liu's paper to extend atomic swaps to financial derivatives; what happens when all DCR are mined, tail emission and incentives for miners.
Chats: why tickets don't have 100% chance to vote; ideas for more straightforward marketing; long-running chat about world economy and failure modes; @brandon's thoughts on tokenizing everything, ICOs, securities, sidechains and more; challenges of staking with Trezor; ideas how to use CryptoSteel wallet with Decred; why exchange can't stake your coins, how staking can increase security, why the function to export seed from wallet is bad idea and why dcrwallet doesn't ever store the seed; ticket voting math; discussion about how GitHub workflow forces to depend on modern web browser and possible alternatives; funding marketing and education in developing markets, vetting contractors based on deliverables, "Decred contractor clearance", continued in #governance.
#dex channel continues to attract thinkers and host chats about influence of exchanges, regulation, HFT, lot sizes, liquidity, on-chain vs off-chain swaps, to name a few topics. #governance also keeps growing and hosting high quality conversations.

Markets

In July DCR was trading in USD 56-76 and BTC 0.0072-0.0109 range. A recovery started after a volume boost of up to $10.5 m on Fex around Jul 13, but once Bitcoin headed towards USD ~8,000 DCR declined along with most altcoins.
WalletInvestor posted a prediction on dcrtrader.
Decred was noticed in top 10 mineable coins on coinmarketcap.com.

Relevant External

One million PCs in China were infected via browser plugins to mine Decred, Siacoin and Digibyte.
In a Unchained podcast episode David Vorick shared why ASICs are better than GPUs even if they tend toward mining centralization and also described Obelisk's new Launchpad service. (missed in June issue)
Sia project moved to GitLab. The stated reasons are to avoid the risk of depending on centralized service, to avoid vendor lock-in, better continuous integration and testing, better access control and the general direction to support decentralized and open source projects.
Luxor explained why PPS pools are better.
@nic__carter published slides from his talk "An Overview of Governance in Blockchains" from Zcon0.
This article arguing the importance of governance systems dates back to 2007.
Bancor wallet was hacked. This reminds us about the fake feeling of decentralizaion, that custody of funds is dangerous and that smart contracts must have minimum complexity and be verifiable.
Circle announced official Poloniex mobile apps for iOS and Android.
On Jul 27 Circle announced delisting of 9 coins from Poloniex that led to a loss of 23-81% of their value same day. Sad reminder about how much a project can depend on a single centralized exchange.
DCR supply and market cap is now correct on onchainfx.com and finally, on coinmarketcap.com. Thanks to @sumiflow, @jz and others doing the tedious work to reach out the various websites.

About This Issue

This is the 4th issue of Decred Journal. It is mirrored on GitHub, Medium and Reddit. Past issues are available here.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
Chat links were changed to riot.im from the static web viewer that suffered from UX issues (filed here and here). We will consider changing back to the static viewer once they are resolved because it does not require javascript to read chat logs.
In the previous issue we introduced "Featured articles". The judgement is subjective by definition, if you feel unfairness or want to debate the criteria please check this issue.
Feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room.
Contributions are also welcome, some areas are adding content, pre-release review or translations to other languages.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Haon and Richard-Red.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

Why Is Cryptocurrency Going Up And Down?

When discussing the crypto market, people often pay attention to its high volatility. For some volatility is a scary part of investing and buying ‘the future of money’. For others, it is a chance of getting hilariously rich. So why is cryptocurrency volatility such a big deal? Is it good or bad? Today we will try to explain it.
What does volatility mean? In the simplest terms, volatility is a mathematical tool or index by which we measure the price movements over time for a traded financial instrument or asset. Usually, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is calculated within a specific period: a week, a month or a year. On the basis of monthly or yearly volatility, it is already possible to draw some conclusions and make forecasts on trading strategies.
The rates of any of the assets, including crypto are rarely stable. It is usually influenced by demand and supply from ordinary customers and investors, traders, economic and political situations and so on. Of course, compared to traditional assets, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is really high. The average annual volatility of fiat currencies usually does not exceed 3-4%. On the other hand, for example, is Bitcoin which experienced massive growth in 2017, growing from $700 to almost $20,000. That’s a staggering 2,800% rate of return in merely 12 months.
So what are the main factors causing the volatility in the crypto world?
All fiat currencies are supported by governments, which simply will not allow them to fall or rise in value for no apparent reason. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and are not supported by any structures, which causes certain changes in their rates.
For example, the exchange rates of many currencies depend on the minerals produced in the country (like oil or gas), as they make up a significant part of exports. The fact that cryptocurrencies are not tied to tangible values causes a certain dissonance in some minds. It is worth mentioning that some crypto coins are backed by real-world currency and traditional assets (for example, Tether which is tied to the USD and some other digital coins).
If the approximate value of corporate shares can be calculated by specific indicators of their activities, unfortunately, there are no such tools in case of digital currencies. In fact, they exist in a kind of a vacuum, and sometimes their rates change for unclear reasons.
A young market backed by new technology is much more volatile than traditional investments that are mature and have been time-tested. New technologies take time to be perfected and adopted by the general masses, and there is a high risk of failure since there are many things that can go wrong.
The cryptocurrency has often been seen as a hotbed for speculation, which induces market instability. This creates an environment filled with tremendous risks.
As you can see volatility is an important aspect of cryptocurrencies, but actually, it is a double-edged sword.
Almost everyone speaks about the volatility of crypto coins in a negative tone because, in the traditional economy, high volatility is more of a negative than a positive indicator. However, the volatility of the cryptocurrency world has its own advantages. Mainly for traders in the crypto market, because one transaction can bring lots of profit. Thanks to this, many traders will continue entering the cryptocurrency market. Also, high volatility increases trading volumes and ultimately contributes to the popularity of crypto coins.
On the other hand, it, of course, has disadvantages:
- High risks. Simply put, if the currency rates are swinging so much, where is the guarantee that one day it will not fall to the minimum values? These risks push business away from crypto transactions.
- Unpredictability. Nowadays it is very difficult to say how much and why the crypto rate will fall and grow.
The crypto market is still trying to find its way. No doubts that cryptocurrencies will become more widespread in all spheres of our life. Nowadays, developers are trying to solve the problem of volatility by creating Stablecoins. But it would be a stretch to say that these alternative cryptocurrencies will be the entire future of cryptocurrencies. Probably after the recognition at the state level and the protection of investors participating in the ICO, longer-term players will start entering the crypto market and the volatility of rates will decrease.
How are you dealing with the volatility of crypto coins? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below!
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get Stealthex.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by Stealthex_io to dashpay [link] [comments]

Why Is Cryptocurrency Going Up And Down?

When discussing the crypto market, people often pay attention to its high volatility. For some volatility is a scary part of investing and buying ‘the future of money’. For others, it is a chance of getting hilariously rich. So why is cryptocurrency volatility such a big deal? Is it good or bad? Today we will try to explain it.
What does volatility mean? In the simplest terms, volatility is a mathematical tool or index by which we measure the price movements over time for a traded financial instrument or asset. Usually, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is calculated within a specific period: a week, a month or a year. On the basis of monthly or yearly volatility, it is already possible to draw some conclusions and make forecasts on trading strategies.
The rates of any of the assets, including crypto are rarely stable. It is usually influenced by demand and supply from ordinary customers and investors, traders, economic and political situations and so on. Of course, compared to traditional assets, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is really high. The average annual volatility of fiat currencies usually does not exceed 3-4%. On the other hand, for example, is Bitcoin which experienced massive growth in 2017, growing from $700 to almost $20,000. That’s a staggering 2,800% rate of return in merely 12 months.
So what are the main factors causing the volatility in the crypto world?
All fiat currencies are supported by governments, which simply will not allow them to fall or rise in value for no apparent reason. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and are not supported by any structures, which causes certain changes in their rates.
For example, the exchange rates of many currencies depend on the minerals produced in the country (like oil or gas), as they make up a significant part of exports. The fact that cryptocurrencies are not tied to tangible values causes a certain dissonance in some minds. It is worth mentioning that some crypto coins are backed by real-world currency and traditional assets (for example, Tether which is tied to the USD and some other digital coins).
If the approximate value of corporate shares can be calculated by specific indicators of their activities, unfortunately, there are no such tools in case of digital currencies. In fact, they exist in a kind of a vacuum, and sometimes their rates change for unclear reasons.
A young market backed by new technology is much more volatile than traditional investments that are mature and have been time-tested. New technologies take time to be perfected and adopted by the general masses, and there is a high risk of failure since there are many things that can go wrong.
The cryptocurrency has often been seen as a hotbed for speculation, which induces market instability. This creates an environment filled with tremendous risks.
As you can see volatility is an important aspect of cryptocurrencies, but actually, it is a double-edged sword.
Almost everyone speaks about the volatility of crypto coins in a negative tone because, in the traditional economy, high volatility is more of a negative than a positive indicator. However, the volatility of the cryptocurrency world has its own advantages. Mainly for traders in the crypto market, because one transaction can bring lots of profit. Thanks to this, many traders will continue entering the cryptocurrency market. Also, high volatility increases trading volumes and ultimately contributes to the popularity of crypto coins.
On the other hand, it, of course, has disadvantages:
- High risks. Simply put, if the currency rates are swinging so much, where is the guarantee that one day it will not fall to the minimum values? These risks push business away from crypto transactions.
- Unpredictability. Nowadays it is very difficult to say how much and why the crypto rate will fall and grow.
The crypto market is still trying to find its way. No doubts that cryptocurrencies will become more widespread in all spheres of our life. Nowadays, developers are trying to solve the problem of volatility by creating Stablecoins. But it would be a stretch to say that these alternative cryptocurrencies will be the entire future of cryptocurrencies. Probably after the recognition at the state level and the protection of investors participating in the ICO, longer-term players will start entering the crypto market and the volatility of rates will decrease.
How are you dealing with the volatility of crypto coins? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below!
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get Stealthex.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by Stealthex_io to btc [link] [comments]

Why Is Cryptocurrency Going Up And Down?

When discussing the crypto market, people often pay attention to its high volatility. For some volatility is a scary part of investing and buying ‘the future of money’. For others, it is a chance of getting hilariously rich. So why is cryptocurrency volatility such a big deal? Is it good or bad? Today we will try to explain it.
What does volatility mean? In the simplest terms, volatility is a mathematical tool or index by which we measure the price movements over time for a traded financial instrument or asset. Usually, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is calculated within a specific period: a week, a month or a year. On the basis of monthly or yearly volatility, it is already possible to draw some conclusions and make forecasts on trading strategies.
The rates of any of the assets, including crypto are rarely stable. It is usually influenced by demand and supply from ordinary customers and investors, traders, economic and political situations and so on. Of course, compared to traditional assets, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is really high. The average annual volatility of fiat currencies usually does not exceed 3-4%. On the other hand, for example, is Bitcoin which experienced massive growth in 2017, growing from $700 to almost $20,000. That’s a staggering 2,800% rate of return in merely 12 months.
So what are the main factors causing the volatility in the crypto world?
All fiat currencies are supported by governments, which simply will not allow them to fall or rise in value for no apparent reason. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and are not supported by any structures, which causes certain changes in their rates.
For example, the exchange rates of many currencies depend on the minerals produced in the country (like oil or gas), as they make up a significant part of exports. The fact that cryptocurrencies are not tied to tangible values causes a certain dissonance in some minds. It is worth mentioning that some crypto coins are backed by real-world currency and traditional assets (for example, Tether which is tied to the USD and some other digital coins).
If the approximate value of corporate shares can be calculated by specific indicators of their activities, unfortunately, there are no such tools in case of digital currencies. In fact, they exist in a kind of a vacuum, and sometimes their rates change for unclear reasons.
A young market backed by new technology is much more volatile than traditional investments that are mature and have been time-tested. New technologies take time to be perfected and adopted by the general masses, and there is a high risk of failure since there are many things that can go wrong.
The cryptocurrency has often been seen as a hotbed for speculation, which induces market instability. This creates an environment filled with tremendous risks.
As you can see volatility is an important aspect of cryptocurrencies, but actually, it is a double-edged sword.
Almost everyone speaks about the volatility of crypto coins in a negative tone because, in the traditional economy, high volatility is more of a negative than a positive indicator. However, the volatility of the cryptocurrency world has its own advantages. Mainly for traders in the crypto market, because one transaction can bring lots of profit. Thanks to this, many traders will continue entering the cryptocurrency market. Also, high volatility increases trading volumes and ultimately contributes to the popularity of crypto coins.
On the other hand, it, of course, has disadvantages:
- High risks. Simply put, if the currency rates are swinging so much, where is the guarantee that one day it will not fall to the minimum values? These risks push business away from crypto transactions.
- Unpredictability. Nowadays it is very difficult to say how much and why the crypto rate will fall and grow.
The crypto market is still trying to find its way. No doubts that cryptocurrencies will become more widespread in all spheres of our life. Nowadays, developers are trying to solve the problem of volatility by creating Stablecoins. But it would be a stretch to say that these alternative cryptocurrencies will be the entire future of cryptocurrencies. Probably after the recognition at the state level and the protection of investors participating in the ICO, longer-term players will start entering the crypto market and the volatility of rates will decrease.
How are you dealing with the volatility of crypto coins? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below!
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get Stealthex.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by Stealthex_io to Digibyte [link] [comments]

"Satoshi Nakamoto" the mysterious creator of Bitcoin is no other than the CIA

Bitcoin has surged to all time highs, Who created Bitcoin, and why?
The creator of Bitcoin is officially a name, “Satoshi Nakamoto” – very few people believe that it was a single male from Japan. In the early days of Bitcoin development this name is associated with original key-creation and communications on message boards, and then the project was officially handed over to others at which point this Satoshi character never appeared again (Although from time to time someone will come forward saying they are the real Satoshi Nakamoto, and then have their posts deleted).
Bitcoin could very well be the ‘one world currency’ that conspiracy theorists have been talking about for some time. It’s a kill five birds with one stone solution – not only is Bitcoin an ideal one world currency, it allows law enforcement a perfect record of all transactions on the network. It states very clearly on bitcoin.org (the official site) in big letters “Bitcoin is not anonymous” :
Some effort is required to protect your privacy with Bitcoin. All Bitcoin transactions are stored publicly and permanently on the network, which means anyone can see the balance and transactions of any Bitcoin address. However, the identity of the user behind an address remains unknown until information is revealed during a purchase or in other circumstances. This is one reason why Bitcoin addresses should only be used once.
Another advantage of Bitcoin is the problem of Quantitative Easing – the Fed (and thus, nearly all central banks in the world) have painted themselves in a corner, metaphorically speaking. QE ‘solved’ the credit crisis, but QE itself does not have a solution. Currently all currencies are in a race to zero – competing with who can print more money faster. Central Bankers who are in systemic analysis, their economic advisors, know this. They know that the Fiat money system is doomed, all what you can read online is true (just sensationalized) – it’s a debt based system based on nothing. That system was created, originally in the early 1900’s and refined during Breton Woods followed by the Nixon shock (This is all explained well in Splitting Pennies). In the early 1900’s – there was no internet! It is a very archaic system that needs to be replaced, by something modern, electronic, based on encryption. Bitcoin! It’s a currency based on ‘bits’ – but most importantly, Bitcoin is not the ‘one world currency’ per se, but laying the framework for larger cryptocurrency projects. In the case of central banks, who control the global monetary system, that would manifest in ‘Settlement Coin’ :
Two resources available almost exclusively to central banks could soon be opened up to additional users as a result of a new digital currency project designed by a little-known startup and Swiss bank UBS. One of those resources is the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system used by central banks (it’s typically reserved for high-value transactions that need to be settled instantly), and the other is central bank-issued cash. Using the Utility Settlement Coin (USC) unveiled today, the five-member consortium that has sprung up around the project aims to help central banks open-up access to these tools to more customers. If successful, USC has the potential to create entirely new business models built on instant settling and easy cash transfers. In interview, Robert Sams, founder of London-based Clearmatics, said his firm initially worked with UBS to build the network, and that BNY Mellon, Deutsche Bank, ICAP and Santander are only just the first of many future members.
the NSA/CIA often works for big corporate clients, just as it has become a cliche that the Iraq war was about big oil, the lesser known hand in global politics is the banking sector. In other words, Bitcoin may have very well been ‘suggested’ or ‘sponsored’ by a banker, group of banks, or financial services firm. But the NSA (as we surmise) was the company that got the job done. And probably, if it was in fact ‘suggested’ or ‘sponsored’ by a private bank, they would have been waiting in the wings to develop their own Bitcoin related systems or as in the above “Settlement Coin.” So the NSA made Bitcoin – so what?
The FX markets currently represent the exchange between ‘major’ and ‘minor’ currencies. In the future, why not too they will include ‘cryptocurrencies’ – we’re already seeing the BTC/EUR pair popup on obscure brokers. When BTC/USD and BTC/EUR are available at major FX banks and brokers, we can say – from a global FX perspective, that Bitcoin has ‘arrived.’ Many of us remember the days when the synthetic “Euro” currency was a new artificial creation that was being adopted, although the Euro project is thousands of degrees larger than the Bitcoin project. But unlike the Euro, Bitcoin is being adopted at a near exponential rate by demand (Many merchants resisted the switch to Euros claiming it was eating into their profit margins and they were right!).
And to answer the question as to why Elite E Services is not actively involved in Bitcoin the answer is that previously, you can’t trade Bitcoin. Now we’re starting to see obscure brokers offering BTC/EUR but the liquidity is sparse and spreads are wacky – that will all change. When we can trade BTC/USD just like EUUSD you can bet that EES and a host of other algorithmic FX traders will be all over it! It will be an interesting trade for sure, especially with all the volatility, the cross ‘pairs’ – and new cryptocurrencies. For the record, for brokers- there’s not much difference adding a new symbol (currency pair) in MT4 they just need liquidity, which has been difficult to find.
So there’s really nothing revolutionary about Bitcoin, it’s just a logical use of technology in finance considering a plethora of problems faced by any central bank who creates currency. And there are some interesting caveats to Bitcoin as compared to major currencies; Bitcoin is a closed system (there are finite Bitcoin) – this alone could make such currencies ‘anti-inflationary’ and at the least, hold their value (the value of the USD continues to deteriorate slowly over time as new M3 introduced into the system.) But we need to pay
Here’s some interesting theories about who or whom is Satoshi:
A corporate conglomerate
Some researchers proposed that the name ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ was derived from a combination of tech companies consisting of Samsung, Toshiba, Nakayama, and Motorola. The notion that the name was a pseudonym is clearly true and it is doubtful they reside in Japan given the numerous forum posts with a distinctly English dialect.
Craig Steven Wright
This Australian entrepreneur claims to be the Bitcoin creator and provided proof. But soon after, his offices were raided by the tax authorities on ‘an unrelated matter’
Soon after these stories were published, authorities in Australia raided the home of Mr Wright. The Australian Taxation Office said the raid was linked to a long-running investigation into tax payments rather than Bitcoin. Questioned about this raid, Mr Wright said he was cooperating fully with the ATO. “We have lawyers negotiating with them over how much I have to pay,” he said.
Other potential creators
Nick Szabo, and many others, have been suggested as potential Satoshi – but all have denied it:
The New Yorker published a piece pointing at two possible Satoshis, one of whom seemed particularly plausible: a cryptography graduate student from Trinity College, Dublin, who had gone on to work in currency-trading software for a bank and published a paper on peer-to-peer technology. The other was a Research Fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute, Vili Lehdonvirta. Both made denials. Fast Company highlighted an encryption patent application filed by three researchers – Charles Bry, Neal King and Vladimir Oks­man – and a circumstantial link involving textual analysis of it and the Satoshi paper which found the phrase “…computationally impractical to reverse” in both. Again, it was flatly denied.
THE WINNER: It was the NSA
The NSA has the capability, the motive, and the operational capacity – they have teams of cryptographers, the biggest fastest supercomputers in the world, and they see the need. Whether instructed by their friends at the Fed, in cooperation with their owners (i.e. Illuminati banking families), or as part of a DARPA project – is not clear and will never be known (unless a whistleblower comes forward). In fact, the NSA employs some of the best mathematicians and cryptographers in the world. Few know about their work because it’s a secret, and this isn’t the kind of job you leave to start your own cryptography company.
But the real smoking Gun, aside from the huge amount of circumstantial evidence and lack of a credible alternative, is the 1996 paper authored by NSA “HOW TO MAKE A MINT: THE CRYPTOGRAPHY OF ANONYMOUS ELECTRONIC CASH”
The NSA was one of the first organizations to describe a Bitcoin-like system. About twelve years before Satoshi Nakamotopublished his legendary white paper to the Metzdowd.com cryptography mailing list, a group of NSA information security researchers published a paper entitled How to Make a Mint: the Cryptography of Anonymous Electronic Cash in two prominent places, the first being an MIT mailing list and the second being much more prominent, The American Law Review
The paper outlines a system very much like Bitcoin in which secure financial transactions are possible through the use of a decentralized network the researchers refer informally to as a Bank. They list four things as indispensable in their proposed network: privacy, user identification (protection against impersonation), message integrity (protection against tampering/substitution of transaction information – that is, protection against double-spending), and nonrepudiation (protection against later denial of a transaction – a blockchain!).
It is evident that SHA-256, the algorithm Satoshi used to secure Bitcoin, was not available because it came about in 2001. However, SHA-1 would have been available to them, having been published in 1993.
Why would the NSA want to do this? One simple reason: Control.
As we explain in Splitting Pennies – Understanding Forex – the primary means the US dominates the world is through economic policy, although backed by bombs. And the critical support of the US Dollar is primarily, the military. The connection between the military and the US Dollar system is intertwined inextricably. There are thousands of great examples only one of them being how Iraq switched to the Euro right before the Army’s invasion.
In October 2000 Iraq insisted on dumping the US dollar – ‘the currency of the enemy’ – for the more multilateral euro. The changeover was announced on almost exactly the same day that the euro reached its lowest ebb, buying just $0.82, and the G7 Finance Ministers were forced to bail out the currency. On Friday the euro had reached $1.08, up 30 per cent from that time.
Almost all of Iraq’s oil exports under the United Nations oil-for-food programme have been paid in euros since 2001. Around 26 billion euros (£17.4bn) has been paid for 3.3 billion barrels of oil into an escrow account in New York. The Iraqi account, held at BNP Paribas, has also been earning a higher rate of interest in euros than it would have in dollars.
The point here is there are a lot of different types of control. The NSA monitors and collects literally all electronic communications; internet, phone calls, everything. They listen in even to encrypted voice calls with high powered microphones, devices like cellphones equipped with recording devices (See original “Clipper” chip). It’s very difficult to communicate on planet Earth in private, without the NSA listening. So it is only logical that they would also want complete control of the financial system, including records of all electronic transactions, which Bitcoin provides.
Could there be an ‘additional’ security layer baked into the Blockchain that is undetectable, that allows the NSA to see more information about transactions, such as network location data? It wouldn’t be so far fetched, considering their past work, such as Xerox copy machines that kept a record of all copies made (this is going back to the 70’s, now it’s common). Of course security experts will point to the fact that this layer remains invisible, but if this does exist – of course it would be hidden.
More to the point about the success of Bitcoin – its design is very solid, robust, manageable – this is not the work of a student. Of course logically, the NSA employs individuals, and ultimately it is the work of mathematicians, programmers, and cryptographers – but if we deduce the most likely group capable, willing, and motivated to embark on such a project, the NSA is the most likely suspect. Universities, on the other hand, didn’t product white papers like this from 1996.
Another question is that if it was the NSA, why didn’t they go through more trouble concealing their identity? I mean, the internet is rife with theories that it was in fact the NSA/CIA and “Satoshi Nakamoto” means in Japanese “Central Intelligence” – well there are a few answers for this, but to be congruent with our argument, it fits their profile.
Where could this ‘hidden layer’ be? Many think it could be in the public SHA-256, developed by NSA (which ironically, was the encryption algorithm of choice for Bitcoin – they could have chosen hundreds of others, which arguably are more secure):
Claims that the NSA created Bitcoin have actually been flung around for years. People have questioned why it uses the SHA-256 hash function, which was designed by the NSA and published by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). The fact that the NSA is tied to SHA-256 leads some to assume it’s created a backdoor to the hash function that no one has ever identified, which allows it to spy on Bitcoin users.
“If you assume that the NSA did something to SHA-256, which no outside researcher has detected, what you get is the ability, with credible and detectable action, they would be able to forge transactions. The really scary thing is somebody finds a way to find collisions in SHA-256 really fast without brute-forcing it or using lots of hardware and then they take control of the network,” cryptography researcher Matthew D. Green of Johns Hopkins University said in a previous interview.
Then there’s the question of “Satoshi Nakamoto” – if it was in fact the NSA, why not just claim ownership of it? Why all the cloak and dagger? And most importantly, if Satoshi Nakamoto is a real person, and not a group that wants to remain secret – WHY NOT come forward and claim your nearly $3 Billion worth of Bitcoin (based on current prices).
Did the NSA create Satoshi Nakamoto?
The CIA Project, a group dedicated to unearthing all of the government’s secret projects and making them public, hasreleased a video claiming Bitcoin is actually the brainchild of the US National Security Agency.
The video entitled CIA Project Bitcoin: Is Bitcoin a CIA or NSA project? claims that there is a lot of compelling evidences that proves that the NSA is behind Bitcoin. One of the main pieces of evidence has to do with the name of the mysterious man, woman or group behind the creation of Bitcoin, “Satoshi Nakamoto”.
According to the CIA Project, Satoshi Nakamoto means “Central Intelligence” in Japanese. Doing a quick web search, you’ll find out that Satoshi is usually a name given for baby boys which means “clear thinking, quick witted, wise,” while Nakamoto is a Japanese surname which means ‘central origin’ or ‘(one who lives) in the middle’ as people with this surname are found mostly in the Ryukyu islands which is strongly associated with the Ry?ky? Kingdom, a highly centralized kingdom that originated from the Okinawa Islands. So combining Nakamoto and Satoshi can be loosely interpreted as “Central Intelligence”.
Is it so really hard to believe? This is from an organization that until the Snowden leaks, secretly recorded nearly all internet traffic on the network level by splicing fiber optic cables. They even have a deep-sea splicing mission that will cut undersea cables and install intercept devices. Making Bitcoin wouldn’t even be a big priority at NSA.
Certainly, anonymity is one of the biggest myths about Bitcoin. In fact, there has never been a more easily traceable method of payment. Every single transaction is recorded and retained permanently in the public “blockchain”. The idea that the NSA would create an anarchic, peer-to-peer crypto-currency in the hope that it would be adopted for nefarious industries and become easy to track would have been a lot more difficult to believe before the recent leaks by Edward Snowden and the revelation that billions of phone calls had been intercepted by the US security services. We are now in a world where we now know that the NSA was tracking the pornography habits of Islamic “radicalisers” in order to discredit them and making deals with some of the world’s largest internet firms to insert backdoors into their systems.
And we’re not the only ones who believe this, in Russia they ‘know’ this to be true without sifting through all the evidence.
Nonetheless, Svintsov’s remarks count as some of the more extreme to emanate from the discussion. Svintsov told Russian broadcast news agency REGNUM:“All these cryptocurrencies [were] created by US intelligence agencies just to finance terrorism and revolutions.”Svintsov reportedly went on to explain how cryptocurrencies have started to become a payment method for consumer spending, and cited reports that terrorist organisations are seeking to use the technology for illicit means.
Let’s elaborate on what is ‘control’ as far as the NSA is concerned. Bitcoin is like the prime mover. All future cryptocurrencies, no matter how snazzy or functional – will never have the same original keys as Bitcoin. It created a self-sustained, self-feeding bubble – and all that followed. It enabled law enforcement to collect a host of criminals on a network called “Silk Road” and who knows what other operations that happened behind the scenes. Because of pesky ‘domestic’ laws, the NSA doesn’t control the internet in foreign countries. But by providing a ‘cool’ currency as a tool, they can collect information from around the globe and like Facebook, users provide this information voluntarily. It’s the same strategy they use like putting the listening device in the chips at the manufacturing level, which saves them the trouble of wiretapping, electronic eavesdropping, and other risky methods that can fail or be blocked. It’s impossible to stop a cellphone from listening to you, for example (well not 100%, but you have to physically rewire the device). Bitcoin is the same strategy on a financial level – by using Bitcoin you’re giving up your private transactional information. By itself, it would not identify you per se (as the blockchain is ‘anonymous’ but the transactions are there in the public register, so combined with other information, which the NSA has a LOT OF – they can triangulate their information more precisely.
That’s one problem solved with Bitcoin – another being the economic problem of QE (although with a Bitcoin market cap of $44 Billion, that’s just another day at the Fed buying MBS) – and finally, it squashes the idea of sovereignty although in a very, very, very subtle way. You see, a country IS a currency. Until now, currency has always been tied to national sovereignty (although the Fed is private, USA only has one currency, the US Dollar, which is exclusively American). Bitcoin is a super-national currency, or really – the world’s first one world currency.
Of course, this is all great praise for the DOD which seems to have a 50 year plan – but after tens of trillions spent we’d hope that they’d be able to do something better than catching terrorists (which mostly are artificial terrorists)
submitted by PeopleWhoDied to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Why Is Cryptocurrency Going Up And Down?

When discussing the crypto market, people often pay attention to its high volatility. For some volatility is a scary part of investing and buying ‘the future of money’. For others, it is a chance of getting hilariously rich. So why is cryptocurrency volatility such a big deal? Is it good or bad? Today we will try to explain it.
What does volatility mean? In the simplest terms, volatility is a mathematical tool or index by which we measure the price movements over time for a traded financial instrument or asset. Usually, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is calculated within a specific period: a week, a month or a year. On the basis of monthly or yearly volatility, it is already possible to draw some conclusions and make forecasts on trading strategies.
The rates of any of the assets, including crypto are rarely stable. It is usually influenced by demand and supply from ordinary customers and investors, traders, economic and political situations and so on. Of course, compared to traditional assets, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is really high. The average annual volatility of fiat currencies usually does not exceed 3-4%. On the other hand, for example, is Bitcoin which experienced massive growth in 2017, growing from $700 to almost $20,000. That’s a staggering 2,800% rate of return in merely 12 months.
So what are the main factors causing the volatility in the crypto world?
All fiat currencies are supported by governments, which simply will not allow them to fall or rise in value for no apparent reason. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and are not supported by any structures, which causes certain changes in their rates.
For example, the exchange rates of many currencies depend on the minerals produced in the country (like oil or gas), as they make up a significant part of exports. The fact that cryptocurrencies are not tied to tangible values causes a certain dissonance in some minds. It is worth mentioning that some crypto coins are backed by real-world currency and traditional assets (for example, Tether which is tied to the USD and some other digital coins).
If the approximate value of corporate shares can be calculated by specific indicators of their activities, unfortunately, there are no such tools in case of digital currencies. In fact, they exist in a kind of a vacuum, and sometimes their rates change for unclear reasons.
A young market backed by new technology is much more volatile than traditional investments that are mature and have been time-tested. New technologies take time to be perfected and adopted by the general masses, and there is a high risk of failure since there are many things that can go wrong.
The cryptocurrency has often been seen as a hotbed for speculation, which induces market instability. This creates an environment filled with tremendous risks.
As you can see volatility is an important aspect of cryptocurrencies, but actually, it is a double-edged sword.
Almost everyone speaks about the volatility of crypto coins in a negative tone because, in the traditional economy, high volatility is more of a negative than a positive indicator. However, the volatility of the cryptocurrency world has its own advantages. Mainly for traders in the crypto market, because one transaction can bring lots of profit. Thanks to this, many traders will continue entering the cryptocurrency market. Also, high volatility increases trading volumes and ultimately contributes to the popularity of crypto coins.
On the other hand, it, of course, has disadvantages:
- High risks. Simply put, if the currency rates are swinging so much, where is the guarantee that one day it will not fall to the minimum values? These risks push business away from crypto transactions.
- Unpredictability. Nowadays it is very difficult to say how much and why the crypto rate will fall and grow.
The crypto market is still trying to find its way. No doubts that cryptocurrencies will become more widespread in all spheres of our life. Nowadays, developers are trying to solve the problem of volatility by creating Stablecoins. But it would be a stretch to say that these alternative cryptocurrencies will be the entire future of cryptocurrencies. Probably after the recognition at the state level and the protection of investors participating in the ICO, longer-term players will start entering the crypto market and the volatility of rates will decrease.
How are you dealing with the volatility of crypto coins? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below!
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get Stealthex.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by Stealthex_io to xlm [link] [comments]

"Ultimately, Credits.energy has many of the red flags we associate with ICO scams."

Credits ICO: Mobile Mining Platform Supports Green Energy? "Ultimately, Credits.energy has many of the red flags we associate with ICO scams."
https://bitcoinexchangeguide.com/credits-ico/ via @bitcoinsguide
"Credits.energy is a cryptocurrency mining app that claims to support green energy initiatives. Here’s our review.
What Is The Credits ICO? Credits is a mobile mining app that lets you mine credits on “low”, “medium”, or “high” settings.
You can download the app today for free for Android (an iOS version is listed as “coming soon”). The mining feature is expected to go live starting in May 2018.
The goal of Credits.energy is to build sustainable, green energy projects. As the official website explains, “credits will be building green energy & sustainable projects that give 10% of profits to various charities.”
Meanwhile, users will be able to cash out their credits through direct deposit. Cashing out is expected to go live in summer 2018.
A pre-ICO for Credits tokens (CRED) is underway throughout March and April 2018. The price is set at $0.005 per Credit, or $1 USD = 200 CRED.
Overall, there’s very limited information about Credits.energy available online. There’s a very small whitepaper, for example, with no team information and little information about how the project works. The platform vaguely mentions investing in solar and wind energy but doesn’t provide many specific details. This is unusual for a company seeking to raise millions of dollars through an ICO.
What Problems Does Credits.energy Seek To Solve? Credits.energy seeks to solve all of the following problems with today’s cryptocurrency industry:
Speed of Transactions: Credits claims that cryptocurrency transactions take too long. They specifically reference the bitcoin and Ethereum network, where transactions can take over 10 minutes to be completed. Obviously, there are other cryptocurrencies that can complete transactions within milliseconds, although Credits.energy doesn’t mention this in their whitepaper.
Volatility: “Bitcoin is backed by absolutely nothing,” explains the Credits.energy whitepaper. This leads to enormous volatility. Credits.energy will solve volatility – although they don’t explain how they plan to do that.
Ease of Use: It’s not easy to jump into the cryptocurrency industry as a layperson. Credits.energy wants to change that.
Cashing Out: “Cashing bitcoin out is confusing,” explains the official whitepaper. you need to export your bitcoin into an online wallet then wait 2 to 3 business days. Credits.energy aims to speed up this process, offering easy cashing out for users.
Obviously, these are enormous and vague problems that occur across the entire cryptocurrency industry.
How Does Credits Work? Credits.energy aims to solve all of the problems listed above. First, the company’s Credits will have their own “network servers to ensure speed and stability supplemented by its users to ensure reliability,” explains the official whitepaper.
Meanwhile, 10% of proceeds will be given to charity projects.
Users will also be able to purchase Credits directly through the platform using conventional payment methods. You can visit Credits.energy today to purchase Credits.
Meanwhile, Credits.energy plans to solve volatility “by investing in green energy and sustainable projects that earn residual income.” Credits.energy will use the income generated from these projects “to improve our technology thus generating cashflow in the tech arena as well.”
Credits use the CryptoNight algorithm for maximum anonymity. Basically, you mine Credits through your Android or iOS mobile app. Then, those Credits are used to fund sustainable projects around the world.
Some of the projects mentioned on the Credits.energy official website include solar energy projects, wind energy farms, and agriculture operations. The whitepaper provides a specific example of all three projects:
Solar Energy: Credits is creating a “Solar Farm Project” that expects to generate 25 megawatts of power on the outskirts of Denver, Colorado. This power will be sold, and the income will be used to “maintain the Credits ecosystem while simultaneously increasing the value of your Credits holdings.”
Wind Energy: Credits will create a Wind Farm Project that will produce 40 megawatts of power on the outskirts of Denver. The company plans to use Vestas turbines.
Agricultural Operations: Credits.energy will launch a large-scale organic hydroponic greenhouse operation on the outskirts of Denver. They plan to mass produce tomatoes, lettuce, spinach, cucumbers, eggplants, carrots, potatoes, and more.
About The Credits ICO Credits.energy is selling its CRED tokens (listed under the trading ticker CX) at a price of $0.005 during the pre-ICO, or $1 USD = 200 CRED.
By the time the main Credits ICO begins, the company is doubling the price of each token up to $0.01 apiece. An exchange rate of 1 ETH = 100,000 CRED is also mentioned in the whitepaper.
The token sale began in March 2018. It appears to be continuing until all tokens are sold. You’ll need to send ETH or BTC to the company’s wallets as posted on Credits.energy.
The Credits team claims the price of each CRED token can be expected to “grow rapidly” as soon as April 2018. However, it’s unclear why they expect the price to suddenly rise.
Who’s Behind Credits? Credits.energy is organized under the name Credits LLC. The website features an article of organization for the company that you can view here. That document appears to show that Credits LLC is a legitimate company registered in the State of Colorado. The company is registered under the name “Fair Trade LLC”. The registration document includes a Denver, Colorado address.
Listed members of the team include Luke Ingraham (CEO and Founder). Luke has owned and operated a successful private crypto investment firm for the past 21 months. He’s also mined cryptocurrency since 2013. You can view his LinkedIn page here.
Luke’s previous listed experience includes positions as CEO of Lucrative Enterprises (September 2015 to December 2016) and CEO of Fair Trade, LLC (from July 2016 to present).
Other listed members of the team include Geoff Williams (CFO) and Bidhan Baral (Android and iOS app developer).
Credits ICO Conclusion Credits aims to launch a cryptocurrency called Credits (also known as CRED or CX). These tokens will be used to purchase a stake in three renewable energy projects in developing around Denver, Colorado, including a wind farm, a solar energy farm, and an agricultural operation. By purchasing CRED tokens, you can earn profits from the success of these operations. Income generated by these three projects will be shared with token holders.
Credits.energy appears to be open and honest about its location and team information. However, there are some unusual things about the project. The whitepaper is just 12 short pages long, for example, and explains limited information about the company. There are no specific details about the three renewable energy projects posted online. We have no reason to believe they’ll ever be completed, for example, and there’s no evidence that any members of the team have previously built any type of green energy operations.
Despite the complete lack of information, Credits.energy is attempting to raise millions of dollars through an ICO in March and April 2018. They claim the price of Credits tokens will experience “rapid growth” within weeks of the ICO – although it’s unclear where this sudden rise of value will come from.
Ultimately, Credits.energy has many of the red flags we associate with ICO scams...."
note: they do have at least i las vegas phone number and their twitter profile has been advertising as being in las vegas nv
shade shade and more shade
submitted by DV82INXS to CreditsCryptocurrency [link] [comments]

A Crypto Fix for a Broken International Monetary System

The international monetary system is broken. Helping to fix it poses a huge opportunity for the cryptographers behind cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.
Now they have one of the stewards of that system in their corner: Mark Carney, the outgoing Bank of England Governor.
A week ago in Jackson Hole, Mont., Carney told the Federal Reserve’s annual gabfest that central bankers could develop a network of national digital currencies to create a new, basket-managed “synthetic hegemonic currency.”
Carney’s proposal was mostly a thought exercise to inspire conversation around solutions to the dangerous imbalances fostered by the current system’s dependence on the dollar as the world’s reserve currency. The specifics were necessarily thin – any solution will be both technically and politically complicated, and even though he’ll depart the BOE in January, Carney’s status as a public official demands caution.
But I don’t share those constraints. So, let me lay out my own modest proposal for a cryptocurrency-based fix to a broken global financial system. Hint: it is not “buy bitcoin.”
I’m neither a trained economist nor a cryptographer, so I know this act of hubris will attract naysayers. I welcome criticisms and suggestions. I’m also quite certain I’m not the first to think of this, so I’m eager to hear of others working on similar projects.
The thing is I’ve been obsessed with both the structural failings of the global financial system and cryptocurrency for many years now. Three of my five books have covered those topics. It’s hard to bite my tongue.

Fixing the global currency system

I think that instead of creating a whole new global currency, central bankers should work to develop digital currency interoperability. We need a system of decentralized exchange through which businesses in different countries can use smart contracts to create automated escrow agreements and protect themselves against exchange rate volatility. With algorithms that achieve atomic swaps now available and with other advances in cross-chain interoperability, I believe we’ll soon have the technology to remove foreign exchange risk from international trade without relying on an intermediating currency such as the dollar.
Here’s how it might work: A hypothetical importer in Russia could strike a deal with an exporter from China and agree to a future payment, denominated in Chinese renminbi, based on the latter’s prevailing exchange rate with the Russian ruble. Relying on an interoperability protocol that’s commonly integrated into each party’s preferred digital national currency – either in privately run stablecoins or central bank-issued digital currencies – the two firms could then establish a smart contract that “trustlessly” locks up the required renminbi payment in decentralized escrow. If delivery and contract fulfillment are confirmed, the payment is released to the Chinese exporter. If not, the funds revert to the Russian importer at the same, initial conversion rate.
In this scenario, both parties are protected against adverse exchange rate movements. Yet, despite the trust gap between them, there is no need to intermediate the payment through dollars, and no need for either party to take out a forward contract, FX option or some other expensive exchange rate hedge.
Of course, the importer would suffer the opportunity cost of locking up otherwise valuable working capital for a few months. But private banks could mitigate that with collateralized short-term loans on terms that would be a lot cheaper than the current cost of currency hedging. Alternatively, if the smart contract is executed on a proof-of-stake blockchain, the locked-up funds could be employed to earn cryptocurrency staking rewards.
What would central banks’ roles be?
Well, for one, they could backstop the entire credit and/or staking model. Providing liquidity or guarantees to banks’ trade finance businesses would be a more constructive use of domestic money supply than applying it to rainy-day funds of U.S. Treasuries and other dollar assets.
Secondly, they’d be charged with assuring the trustworthiness of the interoperability protocol. Whether central banks would endorse and regulate privately developed protocols such as Tendermint’s Cosmos, Parity Technologies’ Polkadot or Ripple’s Interledger, or whether they would commission a multilateral body to build and manage a single official system, there’s no getting around an oversight role for public sector policymakers.
(Don’t worry, crypto libertarians, no one’s taking away your bitcoin in this scenario. In fact, since central bankers will retain their own monetary sovereignty, with exchange rates continuing to fluctuate, bitcoin’s appeal as a “digital gold” alternative to domestic currencies could well be enhanced.)

A broken system

Let’s be clear: if foreign trade no longer requires dollar intermediation, the U.S.-centric global economy will suffer a massive impact, perhaps bigger even than the 1971 “Nixon Shock,” when the dollar was unpegged from gold.
The entire reserve currency system, in which foreign central banks own U.S. government bonds as a backstop and multinational companies hold large parts of their balance sheets in dollars, is based on the need to protect against exchange rate losses. If that risk is removed, the edifice would, in theory, come down.
Yet, as Carney rightly points out, continuing with dollar hegemony is not tenable, either. The system is broken. Whenever global investors get the jitters they rushen masse into “safe haven” dollar assets – even when, as with President Trump’s trade war with China, U.S. policy is the cause of their malaise.
This process, which has become progressively more acute with each financial crisis, causes huge distortions, economic dysfunction and political turmoil. And with economies slowing and the worldwide value of bonds carrying negative yields now at $17 trillion, we now face worrying signs of another crisis. This time, traditional central bank policy could be powerless.
When another crisis comes, the dollar-based system will generate a predictable vicious cycle. The dollar will rapidly rise. This will hurt U.S. exporters, which further stir the mercantile instincts of anti-free traders such as Trump and fuel risks of a destructive tit-for-tat currency war.
Meanwhile, emerging markets will suffer capital flight as a rising dollar raises the risk of debt defaults in those countries. Their central banks will respond by jacking up interest rates to prop up their domestic currencies, but this will choke their economies at a time when they require easier, not tighter, monetary policy. Unemployment will surge and governments will topple.
The current system breeds what former Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke dubbed the “global savings glut” as developing countries squirrel money into dollar reserves that could otherwise be used for domestic development.
In the U.S., it creates the countervailing effect of massive deficits – in other words, sky-high debt. Far from being the “exorbitant privilege” once described by French Finance Minister Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, the dollar’s reserve status is an American curse. It creates artificially low U.S. interest rates, which misprices credit risks and fuels bubbles – see: the 2008 housing crisis.
Worst of all, the dollar system undermines democracy and diminishes economic sovereignty. The performance of every economy hinges on U.S. Federal Reserve policies. Yet the Fed’s low inflation/maximum employment mandate is defined only by the U.S. economic outlook. This policy mismatch makes it much harder for governments to pursue effective measures to create opportunities for all.
When things really go sour, the Fed belatedly and reluctantly becomes the world’s lender of last resort, pumping dollars into the world’s banks via their New York subsidiaries. That’s how we ended up with the “quantitative easing” surfeit after the last crisis, money that went into financial assets, London real estate and fine art, but did little to boost the earning power of the middle class.
These policy failures have bred a populist backlash against globalization, manifest in the U.K.’s Brexit crisis and President Trump’s adversarial trade policies. Yet the reality is that capital flows are more globalized than ever and increasingly beating to the drum of the U.S. dollar.
So, yes, we need change. The question is how and in what time frame?

Violent or managed change?

The solution I described could be adopted abruptly and disruptively or it could be cooperatively managed for a smoother transition.
Under the first scenario, let’s consider Russia and China, the two countries I deliberately chose for my explanatory example, since they are believed to be further ahead than most in developing fiat digital currencies. Both would love to do away with dollar dependence. Could they go it alone and jointly devise a bilateral, cross-chain smart contract between a digital renminbi and a digital ruble? Sure. Would other countries follow suit? Maybe. Such an uncontrolled retreat from dollars could do huge harm to the U.S. and the overall global economy.
That’s why I think central banks should heed Carney’s call and work together on a solution. They could coordinate the gradual introduction of digital currencies, selectively managing access and applying differential interest rates to discourage an exodus from shaky banks. They could also charge the IMF with seeking a global standard for cross-chain interoperability.
Regardless, the disruptive technologies behind digital currencies, stablecoins and decentralized exchanges will advance. It’s a ticking time bomb.
Some central bankers, led by Carney – and now, Philadelphia Fed President Patrick Harker, who said in a Wharton Business School podcast that stablecoins are “inevitable” – get it. Others need to learn fast.
Mark Carney image via Twocoms / Shutterstock.com
submitted by lordofhippos to CryptoCurrencyLive [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Q&A: Price volatility, pegging, stability Understanding & Trading Currency Volatility Everything You Need To Know About BitCoin In 5 Minutes ... What Is Exchange Rate Volatility BITCOIN MASSIVE REJECTION Insane Volatility Ahead... Programmer explains

Request PDF Exchange Rate Volatility and Malawi’s Tobacco Exports to The United Kingdom and The United States The availability and sources of foreign currency in Malawi have become the ... Bitcoin volatility is known to be high, as is shown by comparing Bitcoin volatility to several currencies and to assets like stock, gold etc. This work attempts to extend this work by comparing Bitcoin volatility to volatility of currencies of least developed countries and other cryptocurrencies. Exchange rate and return data drawn from Bloomberg and covering March 2014 to March 2017 was ... Bitcoin’s exchange rate volatility in 2013 was 142%, an order of magnitude higher than the exchange rate volatilities of the other currencies, which fall between 7% and 12%. Gold, which is a plausible alternative to these currencies as a store of value, had a volatility of 22% in 2013 based on its dollar-denominated exchange rate. For comparison purposes, most widely traded stocks have ... surement of exchange rate volatility, its forecasting and behavior (Kamal et. al, 2011). Exchange rate movements impact on volume and value of foreign trade and investment in that exchange rate volatility tends to a ect imports and exports which further in uences a country’s balance of payments. Lothian & Taylor(1997) put forth a theory that suggested that import substitution takes place ... Bitcoin volatility is known to be high, as is shown by comparing Bitcoin volatility to several currencies and to assets like stock, gold etc. This work attempts to extend this work by comparing Bitcoin volatility to volatility of currencies of least developed countries and other cryptocurrencies. Exchange rate and return data drawn from Bloomberg and covering March 2014 to March 2017 was ...

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Bitcoin Q&A: Price volatility, pegging, stability

Analysis and discussion with Professor Patrick McNutt from Manchester Business School. He talks about G-20 and the present currency market. (Asia Confidential) Bitcoin Q&A: Decentralised exchanges and counterparty risk ... Bitcoin Q&A: CME Bitcoin Reference Rate by aantonop. 11:34 ... by aantonop. 2:20. Bitcoin Q&A: Price volatility, pegging, stability ... Exchange Rate Volatility - Duration: 3:43. ... Live Bitcoin Trading With DeriBot on Deribit DeriBot Backup 128 watching. Live now; Currency Options Step-by-Step - Duration: 12:03. collegefinance ... BTC TRADE CORP LTD is focused on making a profit from the difference in price on bitcoin exchanges. Nowadays, this Crypto currency has a huge volatility and allows you to earn higher returns in ... In this video you'll learn about the effects of changing exchange rates on the domestic and external economy

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